What is APA style? It is a standard for writing that is widely used by writers in the social sciences, education, business and psychology. It is used throughout the world in business and academia. APA style calls for “in-text” citations of sources of information.
Why use APA? APA Documentation Style has four purposes: 1. It validates that the information is true. 2. It allows readers to look further into the topic. 3. It gives credit to the person who did the initial research. 4. It prevents plagiarism.
Web Help for APA Style The following are web sites which will give you a mini handbook for APA documentation style. –owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/print/research/r_apa.html –www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/writecenter/web/apa.htmlwww.rpi.edu/dept/llc/writecenter/web/apa.html –www.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-cirb.htmlwww.wooster.edu/psychology/apa-cirb.html –www.wcu.edu/WritingCenter/isource.asp?page=apa_format.htmlwww.wcu.edu/WritingCenter/isource.asp?page=apa_format.html –www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citapa.htmwww.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citapa.htm –www.english.uiuc.edu/cws/wworkshop/bibliography_style_handbookapa.htm
Borrowed Information Any type of borrowed information – not your own original writing must be documented both in the context of the paper as well as on the reference page. Borrowed information includes the following: Summaries, paraphrases, quotations, dollar values, numbers, dates, percentages, statistics of any kind.
Borrowed information This includes dates, numbers, percentages, dollar values, statistics. –Cite is at the end of the sentence. –In 2001, there were 50 million cases of the flu (Green, 2004). Quotes – word for word –end of sentence or within the text –“All papers must be in APA manuscript style.”(Levine, 2004) –Levine (2004) stated, “All papers must be in APA manuscript style.” Paraphrases.- end of paragraph. –Mrs. Horninger says we must follow standard APA manuscript style to accurately give credit to author’s whose writing we borrow (2004).
Reference Citations (In-text end of paragraph or sentence) No author: 1 Author: 3/5 Authors: (“Short Title,” 2000) (“Short Article,” 2000) (Smith, 2000) (Smith, 2000, p. 123) (Adams, Baca, & Car, 2000) Next cite: (Adams et al., 2000)
In Text Citations – End of paragraph or sentence Chapter: Interview: No Date: (Smith, 2000, chap. 3) (A.B.Smith, personal communication, January 23, 2001) (Smith, n.d.)
In text citations within the sentence Jones (2003) compared student performance…. In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 2003) the findings….. In 1998, Jones compared student….. According to Jones (1998), “Students often…..their first time”(p.199). She stated, “Students often…APA style,” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she….why.
Things to Remember when Creating your References page Center the word REFERENCES at the top of the page, then double space to start your first entry. Entries are alphabetized by the author’s last name or the first significant word in the titled text with no author. Each entry is flush left for the first line. Each subsequent line is indented ½ inch. All entries are double spaced.
Basic Reference Format Author’s last name, initials.(year,month day). Title. Publication data. Title. (date). Publication data. Last name, initials. (n.d.). Title. Retrieved month day, year from http://www.webaddresshttp://www.webaddress Article. (date). Newspaper or Magazine,volume (issue) page numbers.
References Allerton,J. P. (2004). The greatest show on earth. Boston: Boswell Publishers. Bobo the clown. (2003, June 17). Newspress,24 (7) p. A1. Cramer, D. (n.d.). My life as a clown. Retrieved July 16, 2004 from http://www.clowns.orghttp://www.clowns.org Denver Department of Entertainment. (2003). The history of clowns. Retrieved July 5, 2004 from http://www.de.state.co.us/org/ent/clowns