Presentation on theme: "APA Style Writing and Formatting APA Manual 6th Edition"— Presentation transcript:
1 APA Style Writing and Formatting APA Manual 6th Edition Use this presentation as a guide when you are writing for graduate classes at Concordia University, Nebraska.
2 Writing StyleAmerican Psychological Association (APA) formatting was developed to standardize documents.APA formatting is required in all CUNE graduate coursework.All page numbers in this guide refer to the APA Manual, 6th edition.
3 APA Formatting APA formatting addresses: Writing style (p. 87) Manuscript format (p. 21)Abstracts are used only in research papersManuscript format in-text citations (p. 169)Manuscript format reference pages (p. 193)
4 APA Writing Conventions: Pronoun Usage Do use the 3rd person.He, she, it, him, her, his, hersThey, them, their, theirsDo not use the 2nd person.You, your, yoursSee p. 79.
5 Pronoun Usage Cont’d Do not use the 1st person. See p. 79. I, me, my, mineWe, us, our, oursExcept in special circumstancesDiscussionsSpecific assignmentsSee p. 79.
6 Word Choice Choose words carefully. To communicate ideas effectivelyLess is usually betterBe as specific as possibleCreditable writing depends on using language that communicates clearlyJargon and/or slang are strictly forbidden.See p. 65.
7 Colloquialisms Write like a professional, not as you speak. See p. 65. “Report” versus “write-up”“Reviewed” versus “looked at”“7%” rather than “a few”“Meeting” rather than “get-together”See p. 65.
8 Expressing NumbersThe general APA style rule governing the use of numbers in a text is:Use numerals to express numbers 10 and aboveUse words to express numbers below 10See p. 111
9 Voice Use an active voice to clarify who is doing what. Correct: Respondents completed the questionnaire in 15 minutes.Incorrect:The questionnaire was completed in 15 minutes by the respondent.
10 Voice Cont’dUse the passive voice to clarify who or what received the action, not the person or people responsible.Example: Traditional IQ tests were administered as part of the admissions process.The use of the tests is emphasized, not the givers of the test.
11 Biased Language Do not use emotional-extreme language. It is of the utmost importance…Happiness totally depends on…Do not use biased languageRacialGenderSocioeconomic statusCreed (belief)See p. 73.
12 Document FormattingClick here to see an example of an APA-formatted title page and document12-point, Times New Roman fontDouble-spaced throughout the documentNo additional spacing between paragraphs, headings, etc.See p. 228.
13 Formatting Cont’d Paragraph indention Page numbers See pp. 229-230. All paragraphs are indented .5 inches (5 spaces)Page numbersUpper right cornerBegin with the first page of the documentSee pp
14 Centered, Boldface, Capitalize All Major Words HeadingsAPA HeadingsLevelFormat1Centered, Boldface, Capitalize All Major Words2Flush left, Boldface, Capitalize All Major Words3Indented, boldface, lowercase, end with a period.4Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase, end with a period.5Indented, italicized, lowercase, end with a period.See p. 62.
15 When to Use Parenthetical Citations Use parenthetical citations when quoting any words that are not your own.Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks.See pp
16 In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations Citing quotes within textThe author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text or citation.Example: Caruth and Green (1996) state that “a traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).See p. 174.
17 In-Text Citations Cont’d Only last names are used.The period comes after the citation, not inside the quotation marks.‘Page’ is represented with a “p” followed by a period in parentheses.(p. xx)See p. 174.
18 In-Text Citations Work with one author Work with two authors (Smith, 1998, p. 11)Work with two authors(Smith & Jones, 1998, p. 11)Note: Both authors will always be included.See pp
19 In-Text Citations Cont’d Work with three to five authorsWhen first cited, list all of the authors.(Smith, Jones, White, & Green, 1998, p. 11).In subsequent citations:(Smith et al., 1998, p. 11)Note the punctuation of et al.See pp
20 In-Text Citations Cont’d ExampleAccording to some studies “a traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth & Green, 1996, p. 11).Note: “&” is used in the citation.Note: The period comes after the citation, not inside the quotation marks.See pp
21 Quoting a Quote Example You are reading an article by Elwell (2012) and on page 13 you read the following:In a recent article Smith (2011) states “2013 will be the hottest summer this decade” (p. 6). If this is the case, the swimming pool industry should make more money than it has in recent years.
22 Quoting a Quote Cont’d In your paper, you write: See pp. 170-174. Several experts have commented on the summer of According to Smith “2013 will be the hottest summer this decade” (as cited in Elwell, 2012, p.13). Elwell (2013) adds “ the swimming pool industry should make more money than it has in recent years” (p.13).See pp
23 Quoting a Quote Cont’d Note the following: “As cited” is used because you are using a direct quote made by Smith BUT you are reading it in the article by Elwell (you are not reading Smith’s 2013 article).Reference page will only include an entry for Elwell, because that is the article you are reading.
24 Formatting References Formatting the reference pageAll references must contain the following information:Author’s nameTitle of workPublication informationSee pp
25 Formatting References Cont’d 1 inch marginsDouble-spacedNo underlining or boldface12-point, Times New Roman fontHanging indent format: first line is flush left; subsequent lines are indented .5 inch.See p. 37 and pp