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Classical Conditioning

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Conditioning"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Conditioning
organism comes to associate two stimuli a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

2 Classical Conditioning

3 Pavlov’s Dogs Pavlov was studying how dogs salivated
He noted that when presented with food, salivation was automatic (unconditioned response) If he rang a bell while he gave the food, after a while the bell alone would elicit the same response as the unconditioned one(conditioned response.) In other words, we can LEARN BEHAVIORS that previously were thought out of out our control

4 Classical Conditioning Terms
Unconditioned Stimulus– A stimulus that naturally elicits a specific response Unconditioned Response– A response that naturally follows a specific stimulus Conditioned Stimulus— A stimulus that elicits a response it naturally has no connection to Conditioned Response– A response to a stimulus that does not occur naturally

5 Pavlov’s Experiments

6 Classical Conditioning
Acquisition the learning process when the response is first established Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

7 Classical Conditioning
Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR

8 Classical Conditioning
Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses

9 Classical Conditioning
Higher Order Conditioning When you pair another neutral stimulus with the neutral stimulus which will then elicit the same response not because it is conditioned, but because it is associated Learned Helplessness Example of a cognitive processes  is the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards. Explains how a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation can lead to depression and mental illness Garcia Principle Conditioned taste Aversion Example of a biological predisposition

10 Biopsychosocial Influences on Learning

11 Pavlov’s Legacy Classical conditioning applies to other organisms Showed how to study a topic scientifically

12 Operant Conditioning

13 Operant Conditioning Uses rewards and punishments to promote or deter a behavior We learn to associate a response and its consequences

14 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Law of Effect
type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

15 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior Respondent Behavior
operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

16 Operant Chamber Skinner Box
chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses

17 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Shaping
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

18 Operant Conditioning

19 Principles of Reinforcement
Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer

20 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

21 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay

22 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

23 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

24 Schedules of Reinforcement
Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz

25 Skinner’s Experiments Reinforcement Schedules

26 Punishment Punishment
aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

27 Punishment

28 Skinner’s Experiments Punishment
Negatives of using punishment Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten Punishment teaches discrimination Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment may increase aggression

29 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one’s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

30 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

31 Cognition and Operant Conditioning
Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

32 Extending Skinner’s Understanding Biological Predispositions
Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive

33 Skinner’s Legacy Applications of Operant Conditioning
At school In sports At home For self-improvement

34 Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
Similarities between classical and operant conditioning Differences between classical and operant conditioning

35 Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning

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