Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The United Nations. History The United Nations – Founded 24 October 1951 by 51 Nations – By 2006 membership was 192 All accept the United Nations Charter.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The United Nations. History The United Nations – Founded 24 October 1951 by 51 Nations – By 2006 membership was 192 All accept the United Nations Charter."— Presentation transcript:

1 The United Nations

2 History The United Nations – Founded 24 October 1951 by 51 Nations – By 2006 membership was 192 All accept the United Nations Charter – Four purposes » Maintain international peace and security » Develop friendly relations among nations » Cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights » Centre for harmonizing the actions of nations – Correct the problems of the League of Nations Lack authority and cooperation Key states were not members Unable to prevent war… WWII

3 Structure UN composed of Six main organs – The security Council Responsible for maintaining international peace and security Includes 15 members – 10 non-permanent rotating members – 5 permanent members » US, Russia, China, France, Britain Veto Power Provided to ensure great powers will join Controversial Today – calls for reform Decisions are binding and require 9/15 votes Peacekeeping is objective – May use economic sanctions or force if needed

4 Continue – The General Assembly All member states are represented – Parliament of Nations – Each state = one vote » 2/3 majority vote required on key issues » Simple majority for non-key issues – Can only make recommendations » Non-binding resolutions Do reflect world opinion Moral authority of the community of nations – Except budget – Can consider any UN issues

5 Continue – The Secretariat Performs the administrative work as directed by the GA, SC, and other branches Led by Secretary-General – Ban Ki-Moon of South Korea » 8,900 staff under regular budget » Around additional 9,000 under special funding Bureaucratic and lacks political power and right of initiative – Exception Article 99 » Right of the Secretary-General to bring attention of security issues to the SC » Provides large diplomatic role to S-G

6 Continue – The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Under the Authority of GA – Coordinates the Economic and Social work of the UN promote human rights and economic justice » Makes recommendations – Works/consults NGO’s, thus forming link with UN and Civil Society (members of society who do not work for government or corporate interest) » Functional Commissions – covers certain issues and programs, non-regional Women’s Issues, Drug Trafficking, Etc… » Regional Commissions – covers development in certain regions, non-issue binding Economic Commission for Africa, etc… » Specialized Agencies – politically and functionally autonomous from central system and deals with major issues World Health Organization (WHO), etc… » Programmes and Funds – under central system and deals with new issues Commision on AIDS/HIV, UNICEF, etc…

7 Continue – The Trusteeship Council Provides international supervision for trust territories as they prepare for self-government and independence – The International Court of Justice Main Judicial organization of the UN. Consist of 15 judges elected by the GA and SC jointly – Settlers disputes between countries – Authority extends from state consent, but if a state agrees to participate, it must follow the rulings of the court

8 Maintaining Peace and Security Cold War hampered effectiveness of SC 1945-1990 = 193 veto votes – 1991-2007 = 19 veto votes UN Standing Army (issues by charter) impossible to establish because of east-west relations – Improvisation took place » Agent can act on its behave UN army composed on state armies National good and moral obligation » Classical Peace Keeping Placing UN army between two warring entities Not issued in Charter » Peace Enforcement or New Peace Keeping – multi- dimensional peace keeping Civil War, humanitarian aid, international conflict, etc… 15 current missions with 82,000 personal

9 State Intervention Promoting Human Security and Justice is a major function of the UN Security of people, including their physical safety, their economic and social well-being, respect for their dignity, ad the protection of their human rights – Runs against doctrine of Non-Intervention and state sovereignty, which were strong elements of the UN during its founding » Intervention was common before establishment of the UN and after World Summit 2005 – UN could intervene if state fails to protect or his intentionally harming population – Genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, etc… – Indicates movement towards World Government – Still difficult to intervene: Darfur, Rwanda, Somalia, etc…

10 Economic and Social Questions Conditions within states; human rights, justice, development, and equality, have a bearing on global peace Integrated Global Context – economic and social problems on one side of the globe will impact other parts of the globe Promoting social and economic development is critical to the UN – Most impact worldwide – Number of agencies are growing Shortage of funds hinders development Millennium Summit – Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) By 2015 half people living on $1 a day, primary education for all, combating AIDs and malaria

11 Is the UN effective? Security Council? General Assembly? Economic and Social Council? Is the UN global government? Social and Economic development? – UNICEF Health Regulation? Courts? Intervention?

Download ppt "The United Nations. History The United Nations – Founded 24 October 1951 by 51 Nations – By 2006 membership was 192 All accept the United Nations Charter."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google