Cholesterol Only from animal sources Needed in cell functions – Body produces approx. 100 mg/day – Consumption should be < 200 mg/day Good vs. Bad Cholesterol – HDL pick up fatty acids from around body – LDL and VLDL stick to arteries around body
When broken down… Ketosis (only when no carbs) – energy production when no energy from glucose for brain, heart, etc. protein synthesis for muscles & liver Energy for muscles, kidney, & adipose ↑ insulin, testosterone → ↑ protein synthesis
Calorie: Unit of Energy By Definition: – Amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
LOOKING AT CALORIES: Proteins= 4 calories/ gram Carbohydrates=4 calories/ gram fat= 9 calories/ gram – So much more efficient storage!
Finding %: Can take grams and divide by total grams to find % in food item Ideal % for intake: – 30% carbohydrates – 40% proteins – 30% fat
Diet one-third of children and more than two-thirds of adults in the United States are overweight or obese What is a "Healthy Diet"? The Dietary Guidelines describe a healthy diet as one that – Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products – Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts; and – Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
Dietary guidelines: Enjoy your food, but eat less. Avoid oversized portions. Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals – and choose the foods with lower numbers. Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
BMR Rate body expends energy at rest Affected by: – Sex – Temperature – Size – Hormone activity
BMI Measure of body fat based on a height/ weight ratio Inaccurately used in medical field Limitations: – Athletes – Age – elderly
Food Pyramid Designed as a guide to determine how much of certain foods should be consumed Move away from standard 2000 cal diet but suggests government guidelines of recommended allowances