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polysaccharides (thousands of chemical structures)

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1 polysaccharides (thousands of chemical structures)
Starches Complex Carbs polysaccharides (thousands of chemical structures) THE NEED FOR CARBS A diet without carbs, the body uses fat and protein for energy, this takes away from the building and repair of tissues. May result in bone mineral loss, high cholesterol and kidney stones Fiber – refer to worksheet

2 Helps body repair itself, found in animal sources such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy and plant sources such as dry beans and peas, nuts, vegetables, and grain products Amino Acids – chemical building blocks take on different shapes that determines their function, body makes many but can’t make all of them – the amino acids that the body needs but can’t provide are called essential amino acids Proteins Some protein foods contain all essential amino acids called complete proteins (animal sources) Incomplete protein - food from plant sources lack at least one essential amino acids (soybeans are the exception)

3 The Need for Protein Growth and maintenance –hair, eyes, skin, etc..
Enzymes – without these chemical reactions would not take place Hormones – chemical messengers that helps regulate conditions in the body (insulin) Antibodies – protein that fight disease Fluid balance – a cell’s life depends on having enough fluid in the right amount

4 FATS needed by the body to :
Lipids Lipids are a family of chemical compounds in every living cell, both in foods and in the human body 2 types of lipids – Triglycerides (fats) and sterols (cholesterol) FATS needed by the body to : Absorb vitamins A, D, E, K Body fat serves as a reserve supply of energy Body fat cushions and protects vital organs Insulation

5 Cholesterol – fat like substance present in all body cells, needed for all essential body process; too much is linked to heart disease, is manufactured by the body as well as obtained from foods LDL (low density lipoprotein) takes cholesterol from liver to wherever it is needed *** “bad cholesterol” HDL (high density lipoprotein) picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to the liver for excretion, keeping it from harming the body ****good cholesterol Types of fat affect cholesterol: saturated fat – raises the LDL ( meats, skin of poultry, whole milk, Tropical oils) Polyunsaturated fat – may help lower cholesterol ( vegetable oils, seafood fats) Monounsaturated fat – appear to lower LDL and may help raise HDL ( olives, olive oils, nuts, peanut oil, canola oil)

6 Hydrogenation turns vegetable oils into solids (shortening)
Trans fats – hydrogenation forms trans fatty acids ( helps give products a longer shelf life and extra flavor) increases LDL and lowers HDL (NOT GOOD!) Suggestions for controlling fat intake Eat fruits, veggies, and whole grains Choose fat free milk or low fat Remove skin and fat from meats, chicken Watch portion sizes Limit fried foods Use less fats at table (butter, salad dressings, etc.) Eat high fat desserts only occasionally

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