Presentation on theme: "1750-1830 Unit 4: Classical. Musical Characteristics Homophonic > Counterpoint Major/Minor chords used more; adds support that makes melody prevalent."— Presentation transcript:
Musical Characteristics Homophonic > Counterpoint Major/Minor chords used more; adds support that makes melody prevalent. Simplicity and Repetition > Complicated Embellishment Shorter Phrases, Clean cadences > Long, overlapping lines Piano > Harpsichord Incredible interest and development of piano solo music (flourishes in Romantic period) Variety in expression Crescendo/Diminueno vs. Tiered Dynamics Mozart: Symphony no. 40 in G minor
More Musical Development Larger Orchestras Instrument Organized into sections, written for as groups Woodwinds vs. Brass Mannheim Orchestra (and School, started in 1750 by Johann Stamitz) A variety of innovative techniques (principles to master!) Mannheim Rocket; Mannheim Crescendo; Mannheim Roller Development of concert symphonies Four movements, written for large orchestras Development of Sonata Form Used in the first movement; very strict, repetitive, clearly laid out. Innovative Smaller Ensembles, too! String Quartet Piano Trio Mixed groups (three strings and one wind player, etc…)
(Franz) Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Prolific Austrian composer Helped development of Piano Trio Helped development of Sonata Form “Father of the Symphony” “Father of the String Quartet” Inspired Mozart, taught Beethoven
Haydn’s Life: Working hard for classical ideals! Parents could not read music, but saw Joseph’s talent Sent him to study choir with relative, Johann Matthias Frankh Left at age 6 – never lived with parents again! Not very well taken care of – fed well when he sang well. “Freelance” time as teacher, street performer, accompanist Spent free time studying composition and music theory Made a name for himself writing comic opera, children’s carnival songs… Worked for the wealthy Esterhazy family, very successful When original patron died, his son let Haydn visit London/work elsewhere Recognized for being humble and working hard (“Good character” led to music being well-received, too!)
Listening Example: Symphony No 94 in G major (“Surprise”) Movement 2 (most famous) Written in 1791 (while in London) Typical Classical Characteristics: Standard symphonic structure: 4 movements. Strict forms: sonata, Theme and Variation, minuet and trio, and rondo Larger orchestra: two flutes, oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, plus timpani and string section Strict repetition of simple ideas (“motives”) Drastic use of BOTH major and minor Balances form, phrases, expressions… and adds comedy.