4 Photograph of ruins in Richmond, Virginia, taken in 1865 Reconstruction EraImage retrieved fromPhotograph of ruins in Richmond, Virginia, taken in 1865
5 Lincoln Assassination 1865 John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre in DC, 5 days after Lee surrendered at Appomattox, VA.
6 Andrew JohnsonAndrew Johnson became the 17th president of the US after the assassination. Southern democrat that was sympathetic to Southern states. Biggest opponents were “Radical Republicans” (extreme changes in society).
7 Radical RepublicansRadical republicans wanted to punish the South for the Civil War and they supported equal rights for freedmen.
8 Major Questions After the Civil War How should the South be rebuilt?How should the states that seceded be brought back into the Union?How should former slaves be incorporated into the country as freed men and women?In small groups answer these questions
9 Affects of Civil WarOver 600 thousand soldiers died during the war and more than 4 million slaves were in the south throughout the four years of the war.
10 Reconstructing a Nation After 4 years of war and over 200 years of slavery, could Northerners and Southerners rebuild the South together?Could they unify as citizens of the same country?Image retrieved fromPhotograph of a Union soldier camp taken between 1861 and 1865
11 Punishment for the Confederate States? Should people who fought against the United States be recognized as citizens? Should they be punished?Image retrieved fromIllustration of the Attack on Fort Sumter from 1861What should be done to the Southern state governments that fought against the United States?
12 African Americans in the South How would freed men and women be treated in the Southern states?How would Northerners address the issue of including former slaves as citizens in society?Just before the Civil War there were about 4 million enslaved people in the US. For over 200 years black people had been systematically dehumanized. As slaves they were considered property and had NO legal rights as citizens.During the war African Americans provided critical support to the Union’s fight (spies, cooks, soldiers, and launderers). Black soldiers made up 10% of the Union Army. Ironically, they often were assigned to the hardest/dangerous work and suffered far worse than white soldiers.Photograph of an enslaved family in South Carolina taken in 1862What were some major challenges that formerslaves faced?
13 Central Historical Question Why was the Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction considered “radical”?
14 Lincoln’s 10% Plan December 1863 Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction PlanPardon most ConfederatesSwear allegiance to UnionForm new gov. and reps. in Congress after 10% took oath“The government would pardon all Confederates—except high-ranking Confederate officials and those accused of crimes against prisoners of war—who would swear allegiance to the Union. After ten percent of those on the 1860 voting lists took this oath of allegiance, a Confederate state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress.”
15 10% Plan Opponents AR, LA, TN, and VA moved toward readmission Plan angered Radical RepublicansWade-Davis BillLincoln’s “pocket veto”“proposed that Congress, not the president, be responsible for Reconstruction. It also declared that for a state government to be formed, a majority—not just ten percent—of those eligible to vote in 1860 would have to take a solemn oath to support the Constitution.”
16 Johnson’s Reconstruction May 1865, Presidential ReconstructionAL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC, TX could be readmitted if…Withdraw secessionSwear allegiance to UnionPay annual war debtsRatify 13th Amendment“Each state would have to withdraw its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery.”“The Radicals were especially upset that Johnson’s plan, like Lincoln’s, failed to address the needs of former slaves in three areas: land, voting rights, and protection under the law.“he pardoned more than 13,000 former Confederates because he believed that “white men alone must manage the South.”
17 Johnson’s Opposition Dec 1865 Congress convened Rejected new Southern legislators (congressmen)Freedmen’s Bureau- assisted former slaves/poor whitesFood, clothing, hospitals, schools, industrial institutes, and teacher training
18 Black Codes Civil Rights Act of 1866 Citizenship for African-Americans Prohibited discriminatory laws (Black Codes)Johnson vetoed ActsLed to Congressional Reconstruction“Black codes had the effect of restoring many of the restrictions of slavery by prohibiting blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, marrying whites, and traveling without permits. In some states, African Americans were forbidden to own land”
19 Congressional Reconstruction June 1866Moderate and Radical Republicans join forces14th Amendment – Civil Rights ActRatified in 1868“The Fourteenth Amendment made “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” citizens of the country. All were entitled to equal protection of the law, and no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.”“President Johnson, however, believed that the amendment treated former Confederate leaders too harshly and that it was wrong to force states to accept an amendment that their legislators had no part in drafting. Therefore, he advised the Southern states to reject the amendment.”
20 Reconstruction Act 1867 Reconstruction Act of 1867 Did not recognize state gov. formed under Lincoln and Johnson’s plansMilitary districts with Union general leadersCitizens voted for delegates to draft new state constitutions“In order for a state to reenter the Union, its constitution had to ensure African-American men the vote, and the state had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.”Excerpt From: Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor De Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson & Nancy Woloch. “The Americans.” Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, iBooks.
21 Johnson ImpeachedImpeach- formally charge president for misconduct while in office; to remove from officeTenure of Office Act 186711 charges brought against Johnson“Not guilty” vote“Tenure of Office Act, which stated that the president could not remove cabinet officers “during the term of the president by whom they may have been appointed” without the consent of the Senate” to protect Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, the Radicals’ ally.”
22 Grant For President Election of 1868 Grant (R) vs Seymour (D) Grant wins!15th Amendment – voting right for African-AmericansPassed in 1870“Grant won the presidency by a wide margin in the electoral college, but the popular vote was less decisive. Out of almost 6 million ballots cast, Grant received a majority of only 306,592 votes. About 500,000 Southern African Americans had voted,”“which states that no one can be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The amendment would also affect Northern states, many of which at this time barred African Americans from voting.”Excerpt From: Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor De Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson & Nancy Woloch. “The Americans.” Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, iBooks.