Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Development: Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9: Development: The Cultural Landscape- An Introduction to Human Geography
2 Chapter 9: Development: Introduction First half of the book focused on global demographics and cultural patternsThe second half focuses on fundamental economic elements of Human GeographyDevelopment: The process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technologyMore developed countries (MDCs)AKA developed countriesLesser developed countries (LDCs)AKA emerging or developing countriesFirst geographic task: Discover where LDCs and MDCs are locatedEssential Question: Why are some regions more developed than others?
3 Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? Economic Indicators of DevelopmentSocial Indicators of DevelopmentDemographic Indicators of development
4 Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? The Human Development Index (HDI)Created by the United NationsFour factors used to assess a country’s level of development:Economic = (1) gross domestic product (GDP) per capitaSocial = (2) literacy and (3) amount of educationDemographic = (4) life expectancyThe four factors are combined to produce a country’s HDI.The highest HDI is 1.0 or 100%The highest ranking countries are typically in EuropeRecently the highest ranked is Norway: 0.97 (2009)Thirty of the lowest ranked are in sub-Saharan AfricaThe lowest ranked is Niger: (2009)
6 Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? Economic indicators of developmentGross Domestic Product (GDP) per capitaGDP: total output of goods and services produced by a country in a normal yearDividing the GDP by the total population measures the contribution of the average individual toward generating a country’s wealth in a yearOther economic indicators are:Types of jobs:Primary (including agricultural)Extract materials from the earth: agriculture, mining, fishing, forestrySecondary (including manufacturing)Workers transform and assemble raw material s into useful productsTertiary (including services)Provision of goods and services in exchange for payment: banking, law, education, governmentProductivity:-The value of a product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it-Workers in MDC produce more with less effort because of access to machines, tools, and equipmentConsumer Goods:-Wealth generated in MDCs is used to purchase goods and services- Especially important: Goods related to communications (telephones and computers) and transportation (motor vehicles)
8 Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? Social indicators of developmentEducation and Literacy, Health and WelfareMDCs use part of their wealth to provide schools, hospitals and welfare servicesAs a result people are better educated, healthier, and better protected from hardshipsInfants are more likely to survive and adults are more likely to live longerEducation and Literacy2 measures collected: Student/Teacher ration and Literacy RateStudent Teacher ration: for Primary Grades, over 30 for LDCs and less than 20 for MDCsMore likely to receive individual attentionLiteracy Rate: People in a country who can read and writeExceeds 98 % in MDCs and less than 60% for LDCsHealth and WelfareMDCs: part of their wealth pays for people who can’t care for themselvesIn most MDCs health care is a public service available at little or no costMDCs: Most governments pay more than 70% of health care (USA is the exception)LDCs: Private individuals pay for more than halfHealth of a population is influenced by dietOn average, people in MDCs receive more calories and protein than they needPeople in LDCs receive less than they need.
10 Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries Key Issue 1: Why Does Development Vary Between Countries? Demographic indicators of developmentMDCs display demographic differences from LDCs.The UN’s HDI uses Life Expectancy as a measure of developmentCharacteristics from Chapter 2 distinguish between more and less developed nationsLife ExpectancyChapter 2: defined as the average number of years a newborn can expect to liveLDCs: Babies can expect to live into their 60s; MDCs: into their 70sWith longer life, MDCs have a higher rate of older peopleThis equates to more retired people on public supportLDCs have 6 times as many young people as oldInfant Mortality RateMDCs: better health and welfare permit more babies to survive infancyMDCs: 99.5 % survive, less than ½ of 1% perishLDCs: Infant mortality rate is greaterLDCs: 94% survive, 6 percent perishMalnutrition, lack of medicine needed to survive illness (dehydration from diarrhea)Natural Increase RateNatural increase of the populationLDCs: 1.5 %; MDCs: 0.2 %Increases need for services that make people healthy and more productiveCrude Birth RateLDCs: 23 per 1,000; MDCs: 12 per 1,000
11 Key Issue 2: Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?
12 Key Issue 2:Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed? More developed regionsNorth America= HDI 0.95Europe= HDI 0.93Other= Russia: HDI 0.73, Japan: HDI 0.96, Oceania: HDI 0.90Less developed regionsLatin America = highest HDI among LDCs= HDI 0.82Southwest Asia and North Africa = HDI 0.74Southeast Asia = HDI: 0.73Central Asia = HDI: 0.70South Asia = HDI 0.61Sub-Saharan Africa= HDI: 0.51
13 Key Issue 3: Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? Gender-related development indexGender empowerment
14 Key Issue 3: Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)Compares the level of women’s development with that of both sexesFour measures (similar to HDI):Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomesNumber of females enrolled in school compared to the number of malesPercent of literate females to literate malesLife expectancy of females to males
15 Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) Figure 9-17
16 Demographic Indicator of Gender Difference: Life Expectancy Figure 9-21
17 Key Issue 3: Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender? Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)Compares the decision-making capabilities of men and women in politics and economicsUses economic and political indicators:Per capita female incomes as a percentage of male per capita incomesPercentage of technical and professional jobs held by womenPercentage of administrative jobs held by womenPercentage of women holding national office
21 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development through self-sufficiencyDevelopment through international tradeInternational trade approach triumphsFinancing developmentFair tradeTo reduce differences between rich and poor countries LDCs must develop more rapidly by increasing per capita GDPTo promote development, LDCs choose one of two models to follow:One emphasis international trade, the other self sufficiency
22 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development through self-sufficiencyA country should spread investments equally across all sectors of their economy and in all regionsIf this occurs the following Characteristics should be evident:Pace of development = modestDistribution of development = evenBarriers are established to protect local business by isolating them from international corporationsThree most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importersTwo major problems with this approach:Inefficient businesses are protectedA large bureaucracy is developed
23 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development through international trade calls for a country to identify its distinctive or unique economic assetsRostow’s model of development(1950s)All countries fall somewhere in five stages; MDCs: stage 4 or 5, LDCs: stage 1, 2 , or 3.The assumption is LDCs will achieve development; MDCs passed through all stages at one timeFive stage model of developmentTraditional Society: Not yet started to develop, high percentage of people involved in agriculture, national wealth allocated to military and religionPreconditions for Take-off: an elite group initiates development through investing in new technology and infrastructure; an increase of productivity is the resultThe Take-off: Rapid growth begins in a limited number of economic activities. Other societal sectors remain traditionalThe drive to maturity: Modern technology diffuses to wide variety of industries promoting rapid growth. Workers become skilled and specialized.The age of mass-consumption: the economy shifts from production of heavy industry to consumer goods
24 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Development through international tradeMost developing countries follow self sufficiency approachExamples of international trade approach (mid 20th Century)The “four Asian dragons” (four little tigers, the gang of four)South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, then British colony of Hong KongSingapore and Hong Kong had no natural resourcesSouth Korea and Taiwan followed Japan’s lead in tradeConcentrated on trade of manufactured goods (clothing and electronics)Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula statesSaudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, and the UAEOnce among the least developed countries, transformed over night into some of the wealthiest due to oil resourcesThree major problems:Uneven resource distribution:Increased dependence on MDCsMarket decline
25 Key Issue 4:Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? International trade approach triumphsThe path most commonly selected by the end of the twentieth centuryCountries convert because evidence indicates that international trade is the more effective path toward developmentTrade has increased more rapidly than wealth as a result of the importance of the international trade approachExample: IndiaForeign factories set up shop in IndiaTariffs on import/export were reduced or eliminatedMonopolies were eliminated on communications and insuranceCompetition has increase the products coming out of IndiaWorld Trade Organization (WTO)Through the WTO, countries work to eliminate trade restrictions on goodsThey also work to eliminate restrictions on the movement of money by individuals and corporationsThe WTO also works to keep trade agreementsForeign direct investment (FDI)An investment of money by one country in another countryMost investments go between MDCs
26 Triumph of International Trade Approach Figure 9-28Figure 9-27
28 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Financing developmentLDCs obtain money from MDCs to fund developmentTwo sources of funds:LoansThe World Bank includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA): provides loans for countries to reform government and legal institutionsIMF: Provides loans experiencing payment problemsForeign direct investment from transnational corporationsStructural adjustment programs: Provide cancelation and restructuring of loans with out penaties
30 Key Issue 4: Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development? Fair trade approachProducts are made and traded in a way that protects workers and small businesses in LDCsTwo sets of standardsFair trade producer standardsFair trade worker standardsProducers and workers usually earn moreConsumers usually pay higher prices