1.Messenger RNA (mRNA) a. STRUCTURE= RNA nucleotides in a single uncoiled chain b. FUNCTION= Carries genetic info from the nucleus to the ribosome
2.Transfer RNA (tRNA) a. STRUCTURE= RNA nucleotides in a single chain folded into a cloverleaf shape b. FUNCTION= binds to specific amino acids and helps form polypeptide chains
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) a. STRUCTURE = RNA nucleotides in a globular form b. FUNCTION = makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made
The production of proteins The amount and kind of proteins produced in a cell determine the structure and function of the cell Protein’s carry out the genetic instructions encoded in an organism’s DNA
Proteins are POLYMERS Made up of amino acids There are 20 different amino acids that make up proteins
What is it??? –making mRNA from DNA NOTE: –Transcribe = to copy T r a n s c r i p t i o n
1.RNA polymerase binds to DNA at the promoter and separates the DNA strands. 2.RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template. Using the template as a guide, nucleotides are assembled into a strand of mRNA. T r a n s c r i p t i o n Steps
DO NOW: Transcription 1. Where does Transcription occur? 2. What is produced at the end of transcription? 3. What enzyme is used in transcription?
b. T r a n s l a t i o n STEP 2 of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
The process TRANSLATING the message encoded in mRNA to assemble a protein. Process begins when mRNA leaves the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane The mRNA then migrates to a ribosome in the cytosol, the site of protein synthesis T r a n s l a t i o n
THE GENETIC CODE The genetic information necessary for making proteins is encoded in series of three mRNA nucleotides Each combination of 3-mRNA nucleotides is called a CODON Each codon codes for a specific amino acid
tRNA carries the “Anticodon”... Allows tRNA to match up with mRNA codon Codons in mRNA
If the mRNA sequence is A-A-U (codon) then the tRNA sequence is U-U-A (anticodon)
1.mRNA arrives at a ribosome 2.mRNA is pulled through the ribosome 3.Start codon signals tRNA to start arriving T r a n s l a t i o n Steps
4.One tRNA matches up to the codons on mRNA to deposit an amino acid 5.Another tRNA comes in and adds another amino acid to the chain. 6.Process continues until stop codon is reached and enough amino acids have been linked to form a protein.
Mutations Mutations = errors –Mutations can occur as a “typo” in the sequence of nitrogen bases. –For example if a sequence should be A-C-G, a mutation could occur and it is now A-G-C... What affect could this have on the protein produced?