Presentation on theme: "The Structure of RNA RiboNucleic Acid"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Structure of RNA RiboNucleic Acid RNA is a polymer composed of RNA Nucleotides.Covalent BondsEach “Nucleotide” is made up of 3 components:A phosphate groupA sugar – the sugar in RNA is Ribose.A Nitrogenous BaseHeld Together by“Covalent Bonds.” These bonds are strong…. You wouldn’t want your DNA falling apartThis is how I draw a NucleotidePS B
2 The Location of RNA RNA can be found in the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm. RNA is made in the Nucleolus.
3 Comparing RNA and DNA DNA Double Helix Found only in the Nucleus DNA Nucleotides have Deoxyribose as the sugarAdenine bonds to ThymineRNASingle HelixFound in the Nucleus and the CytoplasmRNA Nucleotides have Ribose as the sugarReplaces Thymine with Uracil (there’s no Thymine in RNA)
4 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – used to make the ribosomes. There’s 3 types of RNA?Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – used to make the ribosomes.Messenger RNA (mRNA) – carries the DNA instructions from the Nucleus to the Ribosomes.Transfer RNA (tRNA) – picks up amino acids in the cytosol and carries them to the Ribosomes to be assembled into Proteins.
5 Transcription (The Process by which a Template of DNA is used to make mRNA) Transcription takes place in the 3’ to 5’ directionTranscription takes place in the NucleusStep 1. DNA UnzipsStep 2. RNA Polymerase attaches RNA nucleotides to the single DNA strand.Step 3. The newly formed mRNA molecule breaks away from the DNA and leaves the nucleus.
6 TranslationOnce the DNA code has been Transcribed onto a mRNA molecule, mRNA leaves the nucleus and moves into the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm the mRNA combines with the Ribosomes to make Enzymes/Proteins. The Process of reading the mRNA code and building a(n) Enzyme/Protein is called Translation, or Protein Synthesis.
7 In order for Translation/Protein Synthesis to occur a cell needs: 1. mRNA (carrying the DNA code)2. Ribosomes3. Amino Acids4. tRNA (picks up amino acids in the cytosol and carries them to the ribosomes where they will be joined together to form a Protein)
8 The mRNA is made in the Nucleus through the process of Transcription The mRNA is made in the Nucleus through the process of Transcription. mRNA is made up of RNA nucleotides. Each group of 3 nucleotides is called a Codon and codes for one amino acid of the newly forming Protein.This Segment of a mRNA molecule is 7 codons long, 21 nucleotides, and will code for 7 amino acids
9 Made in the Nucleolus, made up of Ribosomal RNA, rRNA Ribosomes (the ribosomes are the actual site of Translation /protein synthesis)Made in the Nucleolus, made up of Ribosomal RNA, rRNA
10 Transfer RNA (tRNA)tRNA is a small, folded RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that picks up and transfers specific amino acids to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation.It has sites for Amino Acid attachment and an Anticodon.The Anticodon is composed ofcomplementary bases.Each tRNA molecule binds to only one type of amino acid.More than one tRNA exists for each amino acid.
11 Animals and Plants get their amino acids the same way they get their Nucleotides.