Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Making Proteins. Differences between RNA and DNA DNA = double strand; RNA = single strand RNA contains Ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA uses."— Presentation transcript:
Differences between RNA and DNA DNA = double strand; RNA = single strand RNA contains Ribose instead of deoxyribose. RNA uses a nitrogen base called Uracil instead of Thymine. What would the conjugate strand of RNA be for the following DNA sequence? AAGCATTCAT
From Genes to Proteins All the proteins in your body need to be produced. Transcription – The stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule. A DNA molecule is copied into a molecule called RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) A single stranded nucleic acid.
Transcription Occurs in the Nucleus RNA polymerase binds to a spot on DNA that codes for a specific gene. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that builds a strand of RNA from DNA. RNA polymerase unwinds & opens the DNA exposing the nucleotides. RNA polymerase reads the DNA and links the complementary nucleotides together.
Now that RNA is made… After the copy of DNA is made the genes that are encoded in the RNA are read in order to piece together the protein. Translation – The stage of gene expression in which the information in RNA is used to make a protein. Gene Expression – Combination of Transcription & Translation. AKA Protein Synthesis.
Translation Occurs in the Cytoplasm RNA is read three Nitrogen bases at a time by a molecule to code for one amino acid. The three-nucleotide sequence of RNA is called a codon. Each 3-nucleotide codon codes for a specific amino acid. A codon chart is used to find what amino acid each codon codes for.
RNA Used in Making a Protein There are three RNA molecules that are involved in the production of proteins. Messenger (mRNA) Ribosomal (rRNA) Transfer (tRNA) Each one of these molecules has a specific function in protein synthesis.
Translation mRNA carries the RNA copy out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm. The mRNA takes the RNA to a ribosome which will build the protein. A tRNA molecule brings amino acids to the ribososme.