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Communicative Language Teaching

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Presentation on theme: "Communicative Language Teaching"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicative Language Teaching
(A functional approach since 1970s): it is an approach, not a method; a unified but broadly based theoretical position about the nature of language and of language learning and teaching.

2 Background This approach is found in the changes in the British language teaching tradition dating from the late 1960s. A lot of British linguists contributed to the formation of the Communicative Approach which aims to make communicative competence (Hymes, 1972) the goal of language teaching and develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication. Communicative competence is what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community.

3 Background Richards and Rodgers (1986) described CLT as an approach rather than a method, since it represents a philosophy of teaching that is based on communicative lg use. Advocated by many applied linguists, CLT in their views emphasizes notional-functional concepts and communicative competence, rather than grammatical structures, as central to teaching.

4 Background The major characteristics are:
Meaning is primary; contextualization is basic. Attempts to communicate in TL are encouraged in the beginning of instruction. Material sequencing is determined by the content, meaning, and function. L1 is acceptable when feasible. Activities and strategies for learning are varied. Communicative competence is the goal of instruction.

5 Background In Hyme’s view, a person who acquires communicative competence acquires both knowledge and ability for language use

6 whether something is formally possible;
whether something is feasible in virtue of the means of implementation available; whether something is appropriate in relation to a context in which it is used and evaluated; whether something is in fact done, actually performed and what its doing entails

7 Canale and Swain (1998) identify four dimensions of communicative competence:
Grammatical competence- similar to linguistic competence by Chomsky by what is formally possible Sociolinguistic competence- understanding of the social context in which communication takes place, including role relationships, the shared information of the participants, and the purpose for their interaction

8 Discourse competence- the interpretation of individual message elements in terms of cohesion and coherence Strategic competence- the coping strategies to initiate, terminate, maintain, repair, and redirect communication

9 Three principles communication, task, meaningfulness principles
the communication principle: Activities that involve communication promote lg learning. the task principle: Activities that involve the completion of real-world tasks promote learning. the meaningfulness principle: Learners must be engaged in meaningful and authentic language use for learning to take place.

10 Influences The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. Language is a system for the expression of meaning. The activities that truly communicative have features of information gap, choice, and feedback; they must be guided by the teacher for unrehearsed situations. Authentic materials should be used. True communication is purposeful. Activities are better carried out in small groups in which interaction among students are maximized.

11 Criticism Being prejudiced in favor of native-speaker teachers by demanding a relatively uncontrolled range of language use and expecting the teacher to be able to respond to any and every language problem which may come up. A basis of group and pair work and less teacher intervention against education traditions Lack of the explicit teaching of grammar -> a consequent loss among students in accuracy in the pursuit of fluency

12 Practice in the Classroom
Grammatical structures had better be subsumed under various functional categories. Authentic materials are preferred. There should be less attention to grammatical rules but fluency should never be encouraged at the expense of clear, unambiguous, direct communication. Technology and increased teachers’ lg proficiency now make achieving the goals of CLT possible.

13 Non-communicative activities
No communicative desire No communicative purpose Form not content One language item only Teacher intervention Materials control

14 Communicative activities
A desire to communicate A communicative purpose Content not form Variety of language No teacher intervention No materials control

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