2 The Medical ModelProposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a diseaseBrings improvement to the treatment processPatients are viewed with more sympathyLess ostracized & feared
3 What Does it Mean to be “Abnormal”? First, can you define normal?3 Criteria1. DevianceBehavior not accepted by society2. Maladaptive BehaviorImpairment of every- day adaptive behavior3. Personal DistressDepression, anxiety or feelings of hopelessness
4 Psychodiagnosis Classification of Disorders 1952 – APA unveils the DSM (Diagnostic & StatisticalManual)1980 – DSM III introduces multiaxial system of classification1994 – DSM – IV (current version) releasedIdentifies 3 times as many disorders as the 1st edition
5 The Future? DSM 5 - will be released in May 2013 Major Changes Mental Retardation = Intellectual disabilitySubstance-Abuse = Addiction & Related DisordersBehavior Addictions – gambling, Internet (maybe)Aspergers’s is officially added to Autism SpectrumAddition of Hypersexual Disorder, Binge-Eating Disorder, Hoarding Disorder & PMDDDimensional AssessmentsMany revisions for Personality DisordersNew Suicide Assessment Tool
6 Multiaxial System of Classification Diagnosis takes place on Axis I & II ONLY! Axis I – Clinical SyndromesInfancy, Childhood & Adolescence DisordersOrganic Mental DisordersSubstance-Related DisordersSchizophrenia & other psychotic disordersMood DisordersAnxiety DisordersSomatoform DisordersDissociative DisordersSexual & Gender-Identity DisordersEating Disorders
7 Axis II - Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation life-long problems accompanied by considerable social stigmasuffered by people who often fail to adapt well to societyAxis III – General Medical Conditionsis for reporting current general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to the understanding or management of the individual's mental disorder.Axis IV – Psychosocial & Environmental Problemsfor reporting psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of mental disordersA psychosocial, an environmental difficulty or deficiency, a familial or other interpersonal stress, an inadequacy of social support or personal resources
8 Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Scale reporting the clinician’s judgment of the individual’s overall level of functioning.information is useful in planning treatment and measuring its impact, and in predicting outcomeScores range from 1 (persistent danger of severely hurting self or others) to 100 (superior functioning in a wide range of activities).
9 Other Important Information Epidemiologythe study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health-characteristics and their causes or influences in well-defined populations.PrevalenceThe breakdown & percentage of a disease/disorder within a populationGenderAgeEthnicityGeographic borders