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Unit 7: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification

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1 Unit 7: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification
DAILY COMMENTARY (in a spiral notebook!): What distinguishes odd behavior from something that is truly a psychological disorder? Essential Question What are the causes & effects of psychological disorders? How are psychological disorders diagnosed and treated? Objectives (write this down!): I can: apply the concepts of the DSM-IV

2 Unit 11: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification
On Desk: RJ 11.1 & 11.2 (E.C.) For Tonight: Research for disorder project; read sections relevant to your assigned disorders; additional research will be required Today: DC Discussion of Class Format & Grading UMAD & the DSM-IV Applying the DSM-IV Assign Disorder Projects

3 Mid Term Data Analysis 3 is required to pass the AP Psych Exam
5 2s (4 were within 4 points of a 3) 2 1s 1 yet to take it How the exam is scored: MC questions worth 1 pt FRQ section worth 50 points (so each term worth 3.125) Add up MC + FRQ to get composite score Convert Composite score to 1-5 scale 107+=5 90-106=4 73-89=3

4 Modified Grading & Class Structure
Reading Journals now 10% rather than 15% of process grade 5% will be based on random, unannounced reading quizzes; this will be easy if you have done your reading journals; they might even be open note at times Extra Credit option: Create a unit review packet that you and other students can complete. It should have a majority of key terms from the unit, and should use a variety of formats (ie, fill in the blanks, charts, matching, short answer, diagrams, etc.)

5 Psychological Disorders Chapter 16

6 Psychological Disorders
I felt the need to clean my room … spent four to five hour at it … At the time I loved it but then didn't want to do it any more, but could not stop … The clothes hung … two fingers apart …I touched my bedroom wall before leaving the house … I had constant anxiety … I thought I might be nuts. Marc, diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (from Summers, 1996)

7 Psychological Disorders
People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons: During various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual. Psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts.

8 Psychological Disorders
To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal. William James ( ) There are 450 million people suffering from psychological disorders (WHO, 2004). Depression and schizophrenia exist in all cultures of the world.

9 Taboo We don’t treat psychological issues the same way we treat medical issues. 10% of the world population will be diagnosed with a psychological disorder at some point of their lives 15% of Americans will

10 Suppose: Aunt Phyllis has a chronic heart condition
Aunt Alice has paranoid schizophrenia Do we feel the same way about them? Do we treat them the same way?

11 Criteria of Psychological Disorder
UMAD U- Unjustifiable Behavior M- Maladaptive behavior: does it disrupt daily routines? A- Atypical Is it unusual? D – Disturbing Is it disturbing to the person, others, or both? OBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.

12 Deviant, Distressful & Dysfunctional
Deviant behavior (going naked) in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest. Deviant behavior must accompany distress. If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder. Carol Beckwith In the Wodaabe tribe men wear costumes to attract women. In Western society this would be considered abnormal.

13 Overview of Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders Anxiety Disorder Explanation

14 Overview of Psychological Disorders
Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorder Mood Disorder Explanation Schizophrenia Symptoms of Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia

15 Overview of Psychological Disorders
Schizophrenia Understanding Schizophrenia Personality Disorders Rates of Psychological Disorders

16 Understanding Psychological Disorders
Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior. John W. Verano Trephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)

17 Medical Perspective Philippe Pinel ( ) from France, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. George Wesley Bellows, Dancer in a Madhouse, © 1997 The Art Institute of Chicago Dance in the madhouse.

18 Medical Model When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder. Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another. Course: when/how a disorder first becomes noticeable, and how it spreads either within the body/brain or over time Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.

19 Biopsychosocial Perspective
Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.

20 Classifying Psychological Disorders
The American Psychiatric Association uses a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s. OBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.

21 Multiaxial Classification
Axis I Is a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present? Axis II Is a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present? Axis III Is a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present? Axis IV Are Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present? Axis V What is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning?

22 Goals of DSM Describe (400) disorders. Determine how prevalent the disorder is. Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”

23 Labeling Psychological Disorders
Critics of the DSM-IV argue that labels may stigmatize individuals. OBJECTIVE 4| Discuss the potential dangers and benefits of using diagnostic labels. Elizabeth Eckert, Middletown, NY. From L. Gamwell and N. Tomes, Madness in America, Cornell University Press. Asylum baseball team (labeling)

24 Labeling Psychological Disorders
2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy.

25 Labeling Psychological Disorders
3. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes. Elaine Thompson/ AP Photo Theodore Kaczynski (Unabomber)

Review: “DSM EXPLAINED” attachment in Edmodo Follow link in edmodo and practice applying the DSM individually at your laptop: Individually read & jot down your answers for “Defining Pschological Disorders” handout

27 Disorders & Therapies Project
See handout & detailed posting on class website Select 3 disorders within one category Research them extensively. Focus on: diagnostic criteria (symptoms) Course & prevalence (when it sets in, how common it is) Etiology (causes) Treatment (medical, therapies, etc.); at least 3 options each Design interactive, multimedia presentation to the class on each of your assigned disorders. You will present at least one. Therapies: Creative Component: skits/discussions of therapeutic choices for a variety of disorders

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