Presentation on theme: "Unit 7: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 7: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification DAILY COMMENTARY (in a spiral notebook!):What distinguishes odd behavior from something that is truly a psychological disorder?Essential QuestionWhat are the causes & effects of psychological disorders?How are psychological disorders diagnosed and treated?Objectives (write this down!):I can: apply the concepts of the DSM-IV
2 Unit 11: Abnormal Psychology Day 1: Disorders & Classification On Desk:RJ 11.1 & 11.2 (E.C.)For Tonight:Research for disorder project; read sections relevant to your assigned disorders; additional research will be requiredToday:DCDiscussion of Class Format & GradingUMAD & the DSM-IVApplying the DSM-IVAssign Disorder Projects
3 Mid Term Data Analysis 3 is required to pass the AP Psych Exam 5 2s (4 were within 4 points of a 3)2 1s1 yet to take itHow the exam is scored:MC questions worth 1 ptFRQ section worth 50 points (so each term worth 3.125)Add up MC + FRQ to get composite scoreConvert Composite score to 1-5 scale107+=590-106=473-89=3
4 Modified Grading & Class Structure Reading Journals now 10% rather than 15% of process grade5% will be based on random, unannounced reading quizzes; this will be easy if you have done your reading journals; they might even be open note at timesExtra Credit option:Create a unit review packet that you and other students can complete. It should have a majority of key terms from the unit, and should use a variety of formats (ie, fill in the blanks, charts, matching, short answer, diagrams, etc.)
6 Psychological Disorders I felt the need to clean my room … spent four to five hour at it … At the time I loved it but then didn't want to do it any more, but could not stop … The clothes hung … two fingers apart …I touched my bedroom wall before leaving the house … I had constant anxiety … I thought I might be nuts.Marc, diagnosed withobsessive-compulsive disorder(from Summers, 1996)
7 Psychological Disorders People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons:During various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual.Psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts.
8 Psychological Disorders To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal.William James ( )There are 450 million people suffering from psychological disorders (WHO, 2004).Depression and schizophrenia exist in all cultures of the world.
9 TabooWe don’t treat psychological issues the same way we treat medical issues.10% of the world population will be diagnosed with a psychological disorder at some point of their lives15% of Americans will
10 Suppose: Aunt Phyllis has a chronic heart condition Aunt Alice has paranoid schizophreniaDo we feel the same way about them?Do we treat them the same way?
11 Criteria of Psychological Disorder UMADU- Unjustifiable BehaviorM- Maladaptive behavior:does it disrupt daily routines?A- AtypicalIs it unusual?D – DisturbingIs it disturbing to the person, others, or both?OBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
12 Deviant, Distressful & Dysfunctional Deviant behavior (going naked) in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest.Deviant behavior must accompany distress.If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder.Carol BeckwithIn the Wodaabe tribe men wear costumes to attract women. In Western society this would be considered abnormal.
13 Overview of Psychological Disorders Anxiety DisordersGeneralized Anxiety Disorder and Panic DisorderPhobiasObsessive-Compulsive DisordersPost-Traumatic Stress DisordersAnxiety Disorder Explanation
14 Overview of Psychological Disorders Mood DisordersMajor Depressive DisordersBipolar DisorderMood Disorder ExplanationSchizophreniaSymptoms of SchizophreniaSubtypes of Schizophrenia
15 Overview of Psychological Disorders SchizophreniaUnderstanding SchizophreniaPersonality DisordersRates of Psychological Disorders
16 Understanding Psychological Disorders Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood.OBJECTIVE 2| Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial perspective on disordered behavior.John W. VeranoTrephination (boring holes in the skull to remove evil forces)
18 Medical ModelWhen physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders.Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder.Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another.Course: when/how a disorder first becomes noticeable, and how it spreads either within the body/brain or over timeTreatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital.Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder.
19 Biopsychosocial Perspective Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
20 Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association uses a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders.The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s.OBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.
21 Multiaxial Classification Axis IIs a Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders [16 syndromes]) present?Axis IIIs a Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation present?Axis IIIIs a General Medical Condition (diabetes, hypertension or arthritis etc) also present?Axis IVAre Psychosocial or Environmental Problems (school or housing issues) also present?Axis VWhat is the Global Assessment of the person’s functioning?
22 Goals of DSMDescribe (400) disorders.Determine how prevalent the disorder is.Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar.Others criticize DSM-IV for “putting any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.”
23 Labeling Psychological Disorders Critics of the DSM-IV argue that labels may stigmatize individuals.OBJECTIVE 4| Discuss the potential dangers and benefits of using diagnostic labels.Elizabeth Eckert, Middletown, NY. From L. Gamwell andN. Tomes, Madness in America, Cornell University Press.Asylum baseball team (labeling)
24 Labeling Psychological Disorders 2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy.
25 Labeling Psychological Disorders 3. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.Elaine Thompson/ AP PhotoTheodore Kaczynski(Unabomber)
26 APPLY YOUR UNDERSTANDING Review: “DSM EXPLAINED” attachment in EdmodoFollow link in edmodo and practice applying the DSM individually at your laptop:Individually read & jot down your answers for “Defining Pschological Disorders” handout
27 Disorders & Therapies Project See handout & detailed posting on class websiteSelect 3 disorders within one categoryResearch them extensively. Focus on:diagnostic criteria (symptoms)Course & prevalence (when it sets in, how common it is)Etiology (causes)Treatment (medical, therapies, etc.); at least 3 options eachDesign interactive, multimedia presentation to the class on each of your assigned disorders. You will present at least one.Therapies: Creative Component:skits/discussions of therapeutic choices for a variety of disorders