Presentation on theme: "History and Perspectives in Psychological Science"— Presentation transcript:
1 History and Perspectives in Psychological Science Module 01History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
2 Module Overview The Definition of Psychology Modern Psychology’s Roots Psychology in the Twentieth CenturyPsychology’s American GroundbreakersSix Psychological PerspectivesPsychology in the Twenty-First CenturyClick on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
3 The Definition of Psychology Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
4 Psychology Scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Uses scientific research methods.Behavior includes all observable behavior.Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.
5 Basic ResearchPure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.Research with the explicit purpose of finding new information
6 Applied ResearchScientific study that aims to solve practical problems.Research with the purpose of using psychology to better the world.
7 Modern Psychology’s Roots Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
8 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Founder of modern psychology; he opened the first psychology laboratory.The “father of psychology”The opening of the lab in 1879 in Leipzig is considered the beginning of the field of psychology.
9 Wilhelm Wundt ( )Used introspection (describing one’s conscious experience)First to use of the scientific method in studying consciousness
10 E.B. Titchener (1867-1927) Founder of structuralism Analyzed the intensity, clarity and quality of the parts of consciousnessStressed psychology as a descriptive science
11 StructuralismTheory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.
18 Psychology in the Twentieth Century Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
19 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Founder of psychoanalysis, a controversial theory about the workings of the unconscious mind.Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts
20 Psychoanalysis Freud’s theory of personality; also, a therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insights into thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflicts
21 Freud’s Influence Influence on “pop culture” Freudian slips Anal-retentiveInfluence on psychologyPsychodynamic theoryUnconscious thoughtsSignificance of childhood experiences
22 Ivan Pavlov ( )Russian physiologist and learning theorist famous for the discovery of classical conditioning, in which learning occurs through associations.Studied learning in animalsEmphasized the study of observable behaviors
23 John B. Watson (1878-1958) Founder of behaviorism, the theory that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes.Emphasized objective and scientific methodologyLittle Albert study
24 BehaviorismThe theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors, not mental processes.Today focuses on learning through rewards and observation
25 B.F. Skinner ( )American behavioral psychologist who developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning anddevised ways to apply them to the real world.
26 Humanistic Psychology A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growthStressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free willHealthy individuals should strive to reach their full potential.Rejected idea that behavior is controlled by rewards and punishments
27 Carl Rogers ( )Humanist psychologist who developed client-centered therapy andstressed the importance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth.
28 Abraham Maslow ( )Humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs,with self-actualization as one of the ultimate psychological needs.
29 Jean Piaget ( )Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that led to a better understanding of children’s thought processes.Interested in how thinking developsBelieved younger children thought differently than older children
30 Psychology’s American Groundbreakers Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
31 G. Stanley Hall ( )First American with a doctorate in psychologyOpen the first psychology lab in U.S. at John Hopkins UniversityFirst president of the APA
32 Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930) First woman to complete the requirements for a Ph.D. in psychologyPresident of the APA in 1905
33 Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1930) First woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the U.S.
34 Francis Cecil Sumner (1895-1954) First African-American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
35 Inez Beverly Prosser (1897-1934) First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology
36 Kenneth Clark (1914-2005) Mamie Philips Clark (1917-1983) Researchers whose work was used in the Brown vs. Board of Education case that overturned segregation in schools.Educational psychologistsStudied institutionalized racism
37 Six Psychological Perspectives Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
38 Cognitive Perspective School of thought that focuses on how people think – how wetake in,process, store, andretrieve information.Emphasizes how people think about and interpret a situation
41 Biological Perspective School of thought that focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotionBehavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.
50 Humanistic Perspective Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potentialBehavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.
53 Psychodynamic Perspective Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflictsBehavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood.Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.
56 Psychology in the Twenty-First Century Module 01: History and Perspectives in Psychological Science
57 Behavior GeneticsThe school of thought that focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differencesFocus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environmentCombines biology and behaviorism
58 Evolutionary Psychology School of thought that focuses on the principles of natural selection to study the roots of behavior and mental processes.Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social aspects of human behaviorBehavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.
59 Positive PsychologyA movement in psychology that focuses on the study of optimal human functioningand the factors that allow individuals and communities to thriveFocus: To study and promote optimal human functioningMartin E.P. Seligman is a major advocateShould promote building positive qualities of people