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Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

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Presentation on theme: "Contemporary Psychological Perspectives"— Presentation transcript:

1 Contemporary Psychological Perspectives

2 Psychological Perspectives
Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “schools of thought” Also called “psychological approaches” To view behaviour from a particular perspective

3 Perspectives Perspective is a way of viewing phenomena
Psychology has multiple perspectives Biological Psychodynamic behavioural Humanistic Cognitive Cross Cultural Evolutionary

4 Cognitive Perspective
Focus: On how people think and process information behaviour is explained by how a person interprets the situation How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behaviour? Influences include Piaget – studied intellectual development

5 Biological Perspective
Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behaviour, thought, or emotion Behaviour is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc. Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning

6 Social-Cultural Perspective
Focus: How thinking and behaviour change depending on the setting or situation Behaviour is explained by the influence of other people present

7 Cross-Cultural Perspective
The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups How are people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviour influenced by their culture? What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate? Keywords: cultural psychology

8 Behavioural Perspective
Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation View of behaviour based on experience or learning Classical conditioning - Pavlov Operant conditioning – Skinner Founded by James Watson

9 Humanistic Perspective
Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential Behaviour is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met. Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers behaviour reflects innate ‘actualization’

10 Psychodynamic Perspective
Focus: How behaviour is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behaviour is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud)

11 Psychodynamic Perspective
View of behaviour is based on experience treating patients Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud) both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind behaviour reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviour early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations Keywords: psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud

12 Evolutionary Psychology
Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behaviour patterns Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives Behaviour is explained by how the behaviour may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.

13 Review MSOffice clip art


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