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Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers Standard SSPFR1.

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1 Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers Standard SSPFR1

2 EQ: How has the field of Psychology developed from philosophy to a science?

3 Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. –Uses scientific research methods. –Behavior includes all observable behavior. –Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.

4 Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions Life Before Psychology René Descartes (1596-1650) Philosophy asks questions about the mind:  Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception? Problem - No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind SCIENTIFIC METHOD

5 Modern Psychology’s Roots Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

6 Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) The “father of psychology” Founder of modern psychology Opened the first psychology lab in 1879

7 Psychology Is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind. WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous as the methods of chemistry & physics. University of Leipzig Harvard University Yale University Columbia University Catholic University Univ of Pennsylvania Cornell University Stanford University Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)

8 Structuralism Studied the basic elements (structure) of thoughts and sensations.


10 Functionalism Emphasized studying the function of consciousness and how consciousness helped people adapt to their environment


12 Structuralism vs Functionalism William James (1842-1910) Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings) Structuralism Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt

13 Gestalt Psychology The whole is different from the sum of its parts. Integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.


15 William James (1842-1910) First American psychologist Author of the first psychology textbook Founder of Functionalism

16 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Founder of the psychoanalytic perspective Believed that abnormal behavior originated from unconscious drives and conflicts

17 Primary motivations, unacceptable thoughts, memories & feelings STM LTM Psychoanalytic theory Levels of awareness and Personality structure libido (life instincts & thanatos (death instincts) - realistic goals

18 Freud’s Influence Influence on “pop culture” –Freudian slips –Anal-retentive Influence on psychology –Psychodynamic theory –Unconscious thoughts –Significance of childhood experiences

19 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Studied learning in animals Emphasized the study of observable behaviors

20 John B. Watson (1878-1958) Founder of behaviorism Studied only observable and objectively described acts Emphasized objective and scientific methodology

21 B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) Behaviorist Focused on learning through rewards and observation

22 Humanistic Psychology Stressed the study of conscious experience and an individual’s free will Healthy individuals strive to reach their potential.

23 Six Contemporary Psychological Perspectives Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

24 Psychological Perspectives Method of classifying a collection of ideas Also called “schools of thought” Also called “psychological approaches” To view behavior from a particular perspective

25 Cognitive Perspective Focus: On how people think and process information Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation



28 Biological Perspective Focus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotion Behavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.



31 Social-Cultural Perspective Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present



34 Behavioral Perspective Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation Behavior is explained by previous learning



37 Humanistic Perspective Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.



40 Psychodynamic Perspective Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.



43 Psychology’s Horizon Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

44 Behavior Genetics Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment Combines biology and behaviorism Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior

45 Evolutionary Psychology Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.

46 Positive Psychology Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate Should promote building positive qualities of people

47 Careers in Psychology Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers

48 Basic Research Pure science or research Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology

49 Clinical Psychologist Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems Largest number of professional psychologists












61 Applied Research Research designed to solve specific practical problems

62 Sports Psychology Play “Sports Imports” (5:38) Segment #33 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2 nd edition)









71 The End

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73 Name of Concept Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

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