Presentation on theme: "Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers Standard SSPFR1."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers Standard SSPFR1
EQ: How has the field of Psychology developed from philosophy to a science?
Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. –Uses scientific research methods. –Behavior includes all observable behavior. –Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.
Predict what will happen Systematically observe events Do events support predictions Life Before Psychology René Descartes (1596-1650) Philosophy asks questions about the mind: Does perception accurately reflect reality? How is sensation turned into perception? Problem - No “scientific” way of studying problems Physiology asks similar questions about the mind SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Modern Psychology’s Roots Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) The “father of psychology” Founder of modern psychology Opened the first psychology lab in 1879
Psychology Is Born Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First Experimental Psych Lab (1879) Focuses on the scientific study of the mind. WW insists that Psych methods be as rigorous as the methods of chemistry & physics. University of Leipzig Harvard University Yale University Columbia University Catholic University Univ of Pennsylvania Cornell University Stanford University Wundt’s students start labs across USA (1880-1900)
Structuralism Studied the basic elements (structure) of thoughts and sensations.
Structuralism vs Functionalism William James (1842-1910) Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related Introspection - self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings) Structuralism Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt
Gestalt Psychology The whole is different from the sum of its parts. Integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Humanistic Perspective Focus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potential Behavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching one’s full potential once basic needs are met.
Psychodynamic Perspective Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.
Psychology’s Horizon Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers
Behavior Genetics Focus: How behavior is affected by genes and the environment Combines biology and behaviorism Emphasis on the importance of both genetic and environmental factors on behavior
Evolutionary Psychology Combines aspects of biological, psychological, and social perspectives Behavior is explained by how the behavior may have helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully.
Positive Psychology Focus: To study and promote optimal human functioning Martin E.P. Seligman is a major advocate Should promote building positive qualities of people
Careers in Psychology Module 1: Introduction, History, Perspectives, and Careers
Basic Research Pure science or research Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology
Clinical Psychologist Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems Largest number of professional psychologists