Presentation on theme: "French and Indian War 1754-1763. The French and Indian War Objectives What were the causes of the French and Indian War? How did the British win the French."— Presentation transcript:
The French and Indian War Objectives What were the causes of the French and Indian War? How did the British win the French and Indian War? How did the war weaken the colonists’ loyalty to Britain?
What Was The French & Indian War? The “French and Indian War”, the colonial part of the “Seven Years War” that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 1700’s. It took more lives than the American Revolution, involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean.
Why The War Began… Rivalry for the West, particularly for the valley of the upper Ohio.
Steps To War In 1748 a group of Virginians interested in Western lands formed the Ohio Company, and at the same time the French were investigating possibilities of occupying the upper Ohio region. The French were first to act, moving south from Canada and founding two forts…. How would you have responded?
Causes of War The French and Indian War was the final chapter in a long struggle among the French, the British, and various groups of Native Americans for control of eastern North America. It was called the French and Indian War because the British and their American colonists fought against the French and their Indian allies. The conflict began because both Britain and France claimed the upper Ohio River valley territory. In June 1954, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union. The plan was based on the idea that the British colonies would benefit from greater unity, just as the Iroquois nation had strengthened itself by forming the Iroquois League.
The colonists rejected Franklin’s plan, but it later provided a model for the United States government. Early in the war, the French and their Native American allies won many important victories. The British troops and colonial militia, armed citizens who served as soldiers during an emergency, tended to fight in the open and in straight lines, as was common in Europe. The French and Native Americans used the element of surprise and hid behind rocks and trees.
British Prima Donna British officers with servants & tea settings. Indian-style guerilla tactics. Colonial militias served under own captains. No mil. deference or protocols observed. Casual, non-professionals. Methods of Fighting: Military Organization: Military Discipline: Demeanor:French Drills & tough discipline. British officers wanted to take charge of colonials. March in formation or bayonet charge.
The British Win the War In 1756, Great Britain formally declared war on France. Fighting spread to Europe and Asia, but the British suffered defeats there too, as they had in America. William Pitt, Britain’s prime minister, the highest official in a parliamentary government, believed that the entire British Empire was at stake. Pitt persuaded Parliament to raise taxes and borrow money to fight the war. In 1758, better-prepared and better-led British troops began to overwhelm the French and Native American forces.
In spring of 1759, the British began a campaign to invade New France and capture Quebec. British General Wolfe laid siege to the city. During a siege, an enemy force is surrounded; trapped and without access to supplies, the enemy is starved into surrender. The British successfully won Quebec, and then Montreal, giving them control over all of New France. The Treaty of Paris (1763), officially ended the French and Indian War in America and the Seven Years’ War in Europe. In the treaty, France turned present-day Canada over to Britain and surrendered its claim to all lands east of the Mississippi River. Britain also returned Cuba to Spain in exchange for Florida.
1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
Weakened Loyalty to Britain Despite the victory, the French and Indian War seriously strained relations between the British and the American colonists. The British thought that the colonists did not provide enough support for the long and costly war that Britain had fought to protect them. The American colonists were shocked by the weakness of British military tactics. The Americans demanded to be led by colonial officers.
Many American colonists felt a loss of respect for British military power. Many also believed that the British did not share the same values as the colonists. Now that the French no longer held Canada or the region west of the Appalachian Mountains, the colonists saw no reason why they should not expand and prosper on their own, without British help. These feelings would soon combine with events to expand the rift between Britain and its colonies.