North America in 1750 On the Road to Conflict North America in 1750 On the Road to Conflict
Tensions Rise VA land speculators and London merchants form Ohio Company, claiming 200,000 acres of land in the Ohio Valley... land controlled by the Iroquois.
1754 Albany Congress and Plan of Union Board of Trade (set up by William & Mary) called a meeting to ease tensions with Iroquois/address issues in the Ohio Valley. Albany Plan – proposed by Ben Franklin – stated that each colony would keep it’s own constitution, but that on all other matter (Indians, westward expansion, military issues) they would decide as a united front/continental assembly. British and colonists quickly rejected this idea...Why?
French Response The French were concerned about the Ohio Company/ colonial expansion policy and their relationship with the Indians. Historically the French used the Indians as a way to control British westward expansion. built a series of forts. Ft. Dusquesne
British French 1754 War Begins VA Gov. (and Ohio Co. shareholder) sends military expedition into Ohio territory. (modern day OH/PA border) Mission was to inform French they didn’t belong here Leader of the expedition-- George Washington--quickly surrounded and sent packing… Hailed as a hero for taking on the sworn enemy of England! Some members of Parliament and Board of Trade called for war (Pitt, Halifax)
Highlights of the French & Indian War June 1755--British began to advance into Canada and into French territory—sail from Boston to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Early years a disaster for the Brits—Fr. had Indian support & were better organized. July 1755: 2000 British regulars and VA militia ambushed at Duquesne. GW staggered home w/500 survivors. 1758—Pitt takes control & tables turn. --overall strategist --forced some colonists to fight and/or quarter soldiers
France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada and west of Appalachians, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. 1763 Treaty of Paris
British March in formation or bayonet charge. Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings. Drills & tough discipline. Colonists should pay for their own defense. Indian-style guerilla tactics. Col. militias served under own captains. No mil. deference or protocols observed. Resistance to rising taxes. Casual, non-professionals. Methods of Fighting: Military Organization: Military Discipline: Finances: Demeanor: British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials
Effects of the War On Britain It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.It greatly enlarged England’s debt. Britain’s contempt for theBritain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter colonials created bitter feelings. feelings. England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! (end of salutary neglect!) On the Colonies It united them against a common enemy for the first time.It united them against a common enemy for the first time. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participatedIt created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit Settlement: Indians in OH must defer to British politically & British will limit settlement west of the Appalachians The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier Ottawa Chief Pontiac will lead brief—and ultimately unsuccessful—uprising against the British in the Ohio Valley