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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates

2 Ask yourself ... What are carbohydrates?
What is the difference between monosaccharides & disaccharides? What is the Glycemic Index? What is glycogen? What is diabetes?

3 Facts about carbohydrates
Most _________________ energy source for the body Need more _________________ than any other nutrient except _________________ _________________ nutrient (carbon-containing) Each gram yields _________________ Calories of energy when used as fuel __________- __________% daily caloric intake

4 Facts about carbohydrates
_________________% should come from _________________ carbohydrates Cereal, fruits, vegetables, legumes, pasta Form of _________________, take longer to _________________ compared to _________________ carbohydrates (sugar) Complex carbohydrates often contain many vitamins, minerals, proteins, and _________________

5 The ____saccharides Number of _________________ units (_________________) divided into three groups based on number of saccharides required to form a _________________ _________________ Disaccharides All _________________ names end is _________

6 Monosaccharides _________________ form of sugars
_________________ and _________________ most common monosaccharides _________________ (levulose) – Fruit sugar Found in: fruits, honey, & table sugar (small amount) _________________ – one of two single sugars that bind together to make up the sugar of milk

7 Monosaccharides Glucose
Fuel the _________________ and _________________ _________________ Most used monosaccharide inside the body. _________________ can quickly convert fructose or galactose to glucose to serve as _________________ _________________ for glucose or fat Source: vegetables, fruits, and honey

8 Dissaccharides Comprised of _________________ monossacharides – one is _________________ a _________________ molecule _________________ – table sugar Sucrose, fructose, & glucose are bonded together Obtained by refining juice from sugar beets or sugarcane Occurs _________________ in many fruits & vegetables

9 Disaccharides _________________ – sugar of milk
_________________ – appears wherever starch is being _________________ _________________ Occurs in germinating seeds & arises during digestion of starch

10 Monosaccharides to ... ... disaccharides Fructose Glucose Galactose
Sucrose Maltose Lactose (fructose – glucose) (glucose – glucose) (glucose – galactose) ... disaccharides

11 Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrate composed of extended chains of many sugar units (i.e. starch) Contain vitamins, minerals, water and protein Source: vegetables, fruits, and grains (i.e. pasta, bread, & rice)

12 When you consume sugars ...
Foods containing _________________, absorb _________________ into your blood To be used for _________________, foods containing _________________ must be digested/broken down into simpler forms (i.e. _________________) _________________ in intestine break down _________________ into separate _________________ to be absorbed in the bloodstream

13 When you consume sugars ...
When in the blood stream, glucose provides cells with energy _________________is stored as glycogen in the liver & muscles When glycogen stores are full & _________________ are consumed above body requirements, _________________ is _________________ and stored _________________: A _________________ composed of glucose that is _________________ and _________________ by the liver and muscle tissues as a storage form of glucose (**Glycogen is not a significant food source **)

14 Did you know? ** Vegetables and fruits have _________________ nutrient density – their _________________ arrive in the body diluted in large volumes of water, packaged with _________________, and mixed with many needed _________________ and minerals ** ** All types of _________________ sugars (including honey) arrive in the body in _________________ form, practically _________________ of nutrients**

15 Glycemic Index (GI) Rate of _________________ _________________
Effects blood glucose levels Digestion leads to _______________ ______________ in blood _________________ accompanied by _________________ (responsible for uptake of glucose by body tissues, hence lowering blood glucose) _________________ GI: sugar & honey _________________ GI: whole-grained breads, rice, bran, & peas _________________ GI: fruits, beans, & lentils

16 Carbohydrate Loading Diet _________________ in carbohydrates
_________________ muscles into storing _________________ glycogen before competition Believe that muscles with extra _________________ will perform better in _________________ events (i.e. marathon, cycling races, swimming, etc.) FACT: It takes on average _________________ - _________________ minutes to fully _________________ normal glycogen stores through exercise

17 Carbohydrates & Training
Train normally ... within _________________ hours after exercise, consume a _________________ -carbohydrate meal (i.e. Orange juice & graham crackers, toast or cereal) This method _________________ the rate of _________________ storage by _________________ % ** Timing is important – if you eat after 2 hours has passed, it _________________ the glycogen synthesis rate by almost _________________ **

18 Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed in children and adolescents - approx _________________ % of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. Occurs when the _________________ is unable to produce _________________. Insulin is a _________________ that helps your body control the level of _________________ (sugar) in your blood. _________________ builds up in your blood _________________ of being used for energy

19 Type 2 Diabetes Usually develops in adulthood; increasing numbers of children in high-risk populations are also being diagnosed Occurs when the _________________ does not produce _________________ insulin or when the body does not _________________ use the insulin that is produced. _________________ builds up in your blood instead of being used for _________________.

20 Some tips on how to manage diabetes
Take your insulin (and other medications) according to the regimen prescribed by your doctor Check your blood glucose levels regularly and keep them in your target range Follow a balanced meal plan Be physically active Keep your cholesterol and other blood fats in your target range Maintain a healthy weight Keep your blood pressure at or close to target level Manage your stress effectively

21 Diabetes & Healthy Eating
Tips Reason Eat three meals per day at regular times and space meals no more than six hours apart. You may benefit from a healthy snack. Eating at regular times helps your body control blood glucose levels. Limit sugars and sweets such as sugar, regular pop, desserts, candies, jam and honey. The more sugar you eat, the higher your blood glucose will be. Artificial sweeteners can be useful. Eat more high fibre foods (whole grain breads and cereals, lentils, dried beans and peas, brown rice, vegetables and fruits). Foods high in fibre may help you feel full and may lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels If you are thirsty, drink water. Drinking regular pop and fruit juice will raise your blood glucose Add physical activity to your life. Regular physical activity will improve your blood glucose control

22 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
_________________ condition; defined as _________________ blood sugar (hyperglycemia) with onset or first recognition during _________________ Affects approximately _________________ per cent of all pregnancies (in the non-Aboriginal population) and per cent of all pregnancies (in the Aboriginal population) Increased _________________ of _________________ diabetes for both mother and child

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