Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates. What is the first thing that comes to mind? Carbohydrates: Supply energy, vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytochemicals However, they."— Presentation transcript:
What is the first thing that comes to mind? Carbohydrates: Supply energy, vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytochemicals However, they are not all created equal.
Chemical Structure http://science9.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/diabetes-glucose.gif
Carbohydrate Types Simple (sugars) Complex (starches and fiber)
Simple Sugars Monosaccharides Glucose AKA: Dextrose The most abundant Supplies energy to cells Fructose AKA: levulose or fruit sugar Galactose Found in lactose
Simple Sugars Disaccharides Sucrose AKA: Table sugar May be highly refined Made up of one glucose and one fructose Lactose Milk sugar Made up of one glucose and one galactose Maltose Made up of two glucose molecules
Simple Sugars Found in honey, jam, jelly, syrup, table sugar and some fruits Measured in the blood
Complex carbohydrates Known as starches, fiber Made up of 100’s to 1000’s of simple sugars Found in grains, pastas, breads, cereals, legumes and vegetables
Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption Travels with carbohydrate
Recommended Amounts Carbohydrates should be the bulk of daily diet. 45-65% of diet For 2,000 calorie/day diet = 300 grams (or 60%) BUT, choose them wisely Example: wheat bread vs whole wheat bread
Food & Carbohydrates The Good, The Bad & The Ugly What foods contain carbohydrates? Which are better than others? What changes might you make in your own diet?
Health Benefits Promotes healthy digestive system May lower blood sugar levels Lowers cholesterol Cancer prevention?
What is Fiber? A complex carbohydrate that the body can neither digest nor absorb. Not considered a nutrient Still has an important role in nutrition Two types of fiber Soluble Insoluble
Insoluble Fiber “Roughage” Promotes regularity Adds bulk Decreases the time that food spends in the intestines Examples: wheat bran, whole-grains, vegetables, fruits
Soluble Fiber Dissolves in water or other liquids. As it passes through the intestines, it forms a gel Promotes waste removal.
Fiber & Your Intestines Fiber is your friend! Relieves and prevents constipation Wheat bran and oat bran are the most effective Start slowly though!
Fiber & cholesterol Fiber binds with cholesterol to help remove it from your system. Less absorption = decrease in cholesterol level This in turn, reduces risk of heart disease. Those who had a high intake of fiber had 40% lower risk of coronary heart disease (Harvard Study) Cereal with high fiber (grains) seemed the most beneficial. FDA approved claim: “May reduce the risk of heart disease.”
Fiber & Diabetes (Type II) Fiber helps regulate blood sugar levels Slows emptying of the stomach which results in slower release of sugar to the blood. Glycemic Index: Measures how quickly food is turned into glucose. Low glycemic foods cause the least “spike” in blood sugar. However, there are flaws in the glycemic index.
Fiber & Weight Loss Fiber may help promote weight loss: Less likely to overeat Makes a meal larger Consume fewer calories for the same volume of food People tend to eat slower Stay full longer
Recommendations 25 grams a day are recommended Americans do not eat enough fiber. How do you add fiber to your diet: Food / Fiber Grams Split Peas / 16.3 g/cupGreen beans / 4.0 g / cup Raspberries / 8 g / cupBrown rice / 3.5 g / cup Whole-wheat spaghetti / 6.3 g / cup Apple / 3.3 g / med. w/ skin Oat bran muffin / 5.2 g / medium muffin Popcorn / 2.4 g / 2 cups Broccoli / 5.1 g / cupWhole-wheat bread / 1.9 g / slice Oatmeal / 4.0 g / cupWhole-wheat fig newtons / 2 g / 2 cookies!
Adding fiber to your diet Start slow! Drink water – helps with digestion. Recommended: water, no or low-calorie beverages (unsweetened tea, diet soda) Eat whole fruits instead of juices Replace refined grains with whole-grains Replace meats with legumes Experiment!
Fiber & Food labels High fiber: Must have 5 or more grams per serving. Good source of fiber: 2.5 – 4.9 grams / serving More or added fiber: At least 2.5 grams / serving “Whole-wheat” Does not always mean whole grain
Fiber Supplements Whole foods are generally always better Check with your doctor before using Examples: Metamucil, Citrucel, FiberCon Fiber supplements: May decrease effectiveness of some medications