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Essential Nutrients Water Carbohydrate Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Energy Nutrients.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential Nutrients Water Carbohydrate Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Energy Nutrients."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential Nutrients Water Carbohydrate Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals Energy Nutrients

2 Macronutrients Macronutrient is defined as a nutrient that is needed in large amounts and has lots of functions in our bodies. Three of the essential nutrients our bodies need are called macronutrients. These macronutrients are also the energy producing nutrients. The Three macronutrients are Carbohydrates, Fats, and Protein.

3 CARBOHYDRATES are the sugars, starches and fibres in your diet. Are made up of three common chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. When these elements are bonded together they form what are called sugar units or saccharides. The way these elements are bonded together determines the type of sugar/saccharide unit achieved. It also dictates the level at which the carbohydrates are able to be broken down. Simple patterns or Complex patterns.

4 The Three Saccharide Groups Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides

5 Monosaccharides – are the smallest carbohydrate molecules, they are made up of one single sugar unit. – Single sugar units/monosaccharides are easily digested and absorbed across the intestinal wall and available for energy.

6 There are three Monosaccharides Glucose – is our body’s major source of energy. Fructose – is found naturally in honey and fruits Galactose – always bonded with glucose and this bonding can be problematic for individuals that don’t have the enzyme necessary to break the bond that allows digestion

7 Disaccharides Disaccharides are made up of double sugar units. The body uses enzymes to breakdown down these sugar units, once the action of the enzymes occurs the disaccharides are turned into monosaccharides so they can be digested and absorbed into the body as a source of energy.

8 There are Three Disaccharides Sucrose – is the sugar we use in our baking or in our coffees it is also found in many foods like molasses and maple syrup. It is made up of two bonded monosaccharides – glucose and fructose. Lactose – is found in milk, again it is made up of two bonded monosaccharides – glucose and galactose. Maltose – is found in some grain products but is also produced when the body breaks down starch. It is made up of to identical and bonded monosaccharides - glucose and glucose.

9 Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are made up of many bonded monosacchrides. Again it is necessary for our body to breakdown these bonded units in order for us to digest them. This is done by the secretion of enzymes used to break the bonds that connect the monosacchrides.

10 Two types of Polysaccharides Starch – starch is found in grains and pastas as well as starchy vegetables. Starch is made up of many bonded glucose molecules. Starch is actually formed in plants through the process of photosynthesis. Starch is a plants fat source, in other words a plant stores its excess energy as starch. Fibres – are only found in plants. During the digestion process there is no enzyme that is successful in breaking down these polysaccharides. Because they are not successfully digested, fibres provide almost zero energy to our bodies. Some of the most significant fibres are Cellulose, gums and pectin.

11 Why is fibre important in our diets  Helps promote normal digestion and elimination of body wastes.  Fibre not only moves things through the intestinal track more quickly because of its absorption of water, this absorption also makes us feel full and reduces our desire to over eat.  Fibre also reduces the risks of gastro intestinal track diseases like colon cancer  Dietary fibre can prevent appendicitis and helps control diabetes.  Fibrous diets may be a proponent in lowering the risk of heart disease and artery disease.

12 Two Types of Fibre 1.Soluble fibre – these fibres are easily dissolved in water and becomes gel-like as it travels through the intestines to be eliminated – Some sources are oat bran, legumes, and citrus fruits. 2. Insoluble fibre – these do not dissolve and are often pushed through our systems whole – some sources are wheat bran, pea pods, wheat stalks, corn.

13 Simple and Complex Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates These are described as simple because the bonds are easily broken down by our enzymes. All monosaccharides and disaccharides are considered simple carbohydrates. Some simple carbohydrates are candy, syrups, and soft drinks Complex Carbohydrates These are described as complex because of the complexity and intricate bond structures. All polysaccharides are considered complex carbohydrates. Some complex carbohydrates are breads, cereals, pastas and vegetables.

14 Sources of Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates Natural sugars: fresh fruit, honey, lactose in milk Refined sugars: chocolate, candy, soft drinks, baked goods, some cereals. Buyers beware: just because a product says fat free it doesn’t mean your body won’t take the added calories from sugar and make fat. Complex Carbohydrates Starchy foods: potatoes, rice, pastas, breads, cereals Fibres: whole grain breads and cereals, bran, vegetables, fruits, dry beans, legumes and lentils.

15 Required Intake We should be receiving 45-60 percent of our daily intake of calories should come from CHO’s and most of this should be from complex carbohydrates instead of simple carbohydrates.

16 The Functions of Carbohydrates 1.Our bodies major source of energy – in order for our bodies to get energy from carbohydrates(CHO), the CHO has to be converted to Glucose during digestion. Recall that glucose is a monosaccharide. 2.Necessary cells require CHO – Three cells in our bodies absolutely require carbohydrates. The three cells are red blood cells, brain cells, and nerve cells.

17 3.Spares the use of Protein – Protein has its own functions related to tissue building and cell construction it doesn’t really have time to waste making energy for you…but it will. If you deprive your body of CHO it will use protein and your lean body tissue to form glucose for energy. Ingesting CHO ultimately spares the use of protein so it can stay busy doing what it is meant to do. 4.Helps break down FAT – excess glucose is stored as fat in the body…but this process cannot be reversed. Once glucose is turned to fat it cannot become glucose again. Fat cannot breakdown properly without CHO, in order to produce energy, carbohydrates need to combine with fat…if CHO is not available fat remains as ketone bodies(unusual products of fat breakdown) in the blood. Ketosis is the result. Ketosis is a very unusual acid- base imbalance. If Ketosis is present during pregnancy it can cause brain damage to the unborn fetus.

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