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An Empire Unifies China

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1 An Empire Unifies China

2 Objectives Compare the Chinese ethical systems that arose in the late Zhou period Describe the impact of the Qin Dynasty on Chinese history SOL Objective: describe China, with emphasis on the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall SOL Objective: describe the impact of Confucianism and Daoism

3 Introduction Zhou Dynasty Conflict Need for order
1045 B.C.E. – invade China Use Mandate of Heaven and Feudalism Conflict 700 B.C.E.- Feudalism breaks down 700 B.C.E- 453 B.C.E- Warring States period Need for order Led to questioning what was the best way to keep order in society Three Philosophies: Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism

4 The Vinegar Tasters 1st Confucius 2nd Buddha 3rd Lao-Tse Sour look
Life was sour Present was out of step with the past 2nd Buddha Bitter look Life was suffering 3rd Lao-Tse Smiling World was teacher of valuable lessons Natural result of living harmoniously was happiness Life when understood is sweet not sour and bitter

5 Confucianism Influence of Confucianism Kongfuzi- Confucius Teachings
The Analects Han Dynasty Civil servants hired for ability instead of birthright Civil service exams Influenced Chinese culture Respect for elders Proper behavior Love of scholarship Kongfuzi- Confucius 551 B.C.E B.C.E. Saw rulers needed to govern wisely Changes needed for peace Teachings Goal: peaceful and just society Society best when all people acted properly 5 basic relationships: Ruler-subject Husband-wife Father-son Older sibling- younger Sibling Friend- friend Authority figures must set good examples Do not do to others what you would not want done to you

6 Daoism (Taoism) Influence Laozi (Lao-Tzu) Teachings
Encouraged rulers to govern less More significant impact on Thought Writing Art Developed into a religion Laozi (Lao-Tzu) Author of Dao De Jing (The Classic of the Way and its Power) Legend? 500s B.C.E. ? Teachings Ancient idea of the Dao, or “the way” The force that gave order to the natural universe People gained happiness and peace by living in harmony with nature Nature full of opposites Follow nature by meditation Accept whatever comes Must discover on your own Government should interfere the least

7 Legalism Hanfeizi Teachings Influence 280-233 B.C.E.
Prince of a royal family Book called Hanfeizi Teachings Based on idea that people are naturally selfish Pursue self-interests Not enough for rulers to rule by example Strict laws Harsh punishments People that critize government should be banished Rulers should have absolute power Trust no one, even family Influence Qin Dynasty used Legalism to build a strong central government Adopted strict policies

8 Confucianism Daoism Legalism
Social order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships Natural order is more important than the social order A highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order Respect for parents and elders is important to a well-ordered society A universal force that guides all things Punishments are useful to maintain social order Education is important to both the welfare of the individual and society Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature Thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the government

9 APPARTS: The Analects A: author P: place and time P: prior knowledge
What was going on that LED author to write it? A: audience Who was it written for? R: reason it was written Why did the author write it? T: the main idea What is the main idea of the source? S: significance Why is it importance?

10 Qin Dynasty Replaced Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C.E. Shi Huangdi
“First emperor” 221 B.C.E. Defeated invaders and crushed internal resistance Doubled China’s size Wanted to unify China Had to crush political opposition Policy of “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches” All nobles families forced to live in the capital city Seized their land, created 36 administrative districts Silenced opposition by murdering hundreds of Confucian scholars Burned “useless” books Established an autocracy- government in which ruler has unlimited power

11 Centralization Irrigation projects increased farm production
Qin Dynasty unpopular Harsh taxes Repressive government Highway network of 4,000 miles Peasants forced to work on roads Trade blossomed Merchants became a new prominent class Uniform standards for Writing 9,000 approved characters Law Detailed laws and punishments Currency Metal coins of bronze or gold Hole in center Weights and Measures Measuring cups Standardized weights

12 Great Wall Zhou Dynasty had built small walls to discourage attacks from invaders Focused on northern border Shi Huangdi wanted to close gaps and unify wall 1,400 miles Used 100,000s of peasants to build Die or build wall Difficult conditions Thousands died Wall worked


14 Fall of the Qin Dynasty Peasants rebelled three years after Shi’s son took control of the Dynasty One of the leaders of the rebellions from the land of Han marched on capital in 202 B.C.E. Would lead to the Han Dynasty

15 Death and Burial of Emperor Qin
Afraid of dying Wanted to be immortal Searched for magic potion Xian Emperor’s tomb Terra cotta army Discovered in 1974 C.E.


17 Writing Workshop Was Shi Huangdi a good or bad ruler?
Create a thesis statement Create information list Create outline

18 Information List Good Ruler Characteristics Bad Ruler Characteristics

19 Outline Introduction Paragraph Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4
State thesis Briefly describe main points Paragraph 2 Main point # 2 Paragraph 3 Main point # 3 Paragraph 4 Main point # 4 Conclusion Restate conclusion Summarize main points

20 Objectives Compare the Chinese ethical systems that arose in the late Zhou period Describe the impact of the Qin Dynasty on Chinese history

21 Essential Questions Why was the Great Wall of China built?
Line of defense against invaders What were contributions of Classical China? Civil service exam Paper Porcelain silk Why were Confucianism and Daoism important in the formation of Chinese culture? Confucianism Daoism Belief that Humans are good Humility Respect for elders simple life and inner peace Code of Politeness (still used today) harmony with nature Emphasis on Education Ancestor Worship

22 Homework Stearns Chapter 2 Outline
Continue working on Notecards for SS Fair Project Coming up: Essay #2 , Classical India/China Exam

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