Presentation on theme: "Ancient China: Early Dynasties, Philosophies, and Religion."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient China: Early Dynasties, Philosophies, and Religion
Ancient China – Introduction Geography Civilization in China developed along the fertile Huang He (Yellow River) over 4,000 years ago. Settlements began around 5000 BCE.
Rule Early China was ruled by a series of dynasties A series of rulers from the same family. Many dynasties made influential contributions to China
Early Chinese Dynasties Shang Settled on the banks of the Huang He River on 1532 BCE to 1027 BCE. First family of Chinese rulers to leave written records – first true Chinese civilization. Remembered for their advancements in culture and technology: Ideographic written script to keep track of taxes, rent, etc. Bronze-metal casting Expansion in the silk industry
Zhou 1045 – 256 BCE on the banks of the Huang He. Stronger rulers due to a new ruling idea – Mandate of Heaven If rulers were just, they had the authority to rule from heaven. Military advancements: crossbow and cavalry Technological advancements: iron plows, better irrigation, better roads for trade.
Qin 221 – 206 BCE – short lived dynasty. Qin Shi Huangdi – only ruler of the Qin dynasty. Put the government under his direct control – violent and demanding!
Mostly remembered for beginning the construction on the Great Wall of China Conscripted tens of thousands of workers many of whom died and were buried into the wall itself. Wall was built to keep Mongol and Turkic invaders out of China. The wall was not completed under his rule (1400 miles long!).
Civil service system Civilians took exams/tests to get governmental jobs. Tested on Confucian ideas, ritual, culture, and even physical skills. Pass = job in government!
Chinese Philosophical and Religious Traditions Confucianism Established by Confucius in 551 BCE during the Zhou dynasty. Ideas to help reform social order in China and society.
Beliefs: In a society (country), the well being of the group is more important than the individual. In order for society function, subjects must carry out duties (jobs) effectively.
Code of politeness: people are naturally good Filial Piety: respect for parents and elders Ancestor worship Better education helps subjects and society
Daoism (Taoism) Established by Laozi during the Zhou dynasty. Beliefs: Dao translates to “the way” Seek order and harmony with nature Reject social structures and renounce worldly ambitions – do not matter! lead a simple life to achieve inner peace.
Yin and Yang Natural relationship between two opposites. To understand a concept/idea, one must understand it’s opposite. One must know evil in order to fully understand good. Natural cyclical balance and relationship.