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Introduction to the Session 6 - Theme 4 – on “Water Resources Management and Governance”

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Session 6 - Theme 4 – on “Water Resources Management and Governance”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Session 6 - Theme 4 – on “Water Resources Management and Governance”

2 Integrated Water Resources Management implies three main elements: The Concept of Integrated Water Resources Management Economic Equity Environmental Sustainability Management Instruments  Assessment  Information  Allocation Instruments Enabling Environment  Policies  Legislation Institutional Framework  Central - Local  River Basin  Public - Private Balance “water for livelihood” and “water as a resource”

3 IWRM: A cross-sectoral approach Water for people Water for food Water for nature Water for other uses Cross-sectoral integration Enabling environment Institutions Management tools

4 Implementation frameworks For IWRM Framework for water governance Framework for water infrastructure development Framework for water and sanitation service delivery Framework for water efficiency improvements

5 Addressing vulnerability: “Vulnerability of Water Resources to Environmental Change in Africa” Aim: Aim: Managing vulnerability risks at transboundary, national and local, river/lake/groundwater basin and catchment levels Action: Action: Assessment of effects of environmental and human driven changes on water resources Impact: Impact: Management and long-term conservation of ecosystems – Strategy and policy development - Awareness creation… Where are water resources most at risk? Africa’s high dependence on natural resources makes people vulnerable to environmental change Where are water resources most at risk? Background

6 We don‘t know yet Vulnerability is multifaceted: Climate variability; Pollution; Population growth; Competition over water; Data availability and quality; Knowledge gaps… Why we need vulnerability assessments  People already live on the threshold  Ecosystems are at high risk For whom it is important Government, Policy and decision-makers and affected communities... Where are water resources most at risk?

7 The river, lake, groundwater basin approach Basin approach supposes:  Balances resource protection and utilization  Considers all components hydrological cycle  Incorporates IWRM principles (equity / efficiency / sustainability) Seeks to maintain a balance between competing pressures  Resource integrity in the long-term  Social upliftment and advancement  Economic growth and use of environmental resources

8 Key parameters and indicators

9 Water Scarcity  Physiography  Socio-Economy  Management ClimateEcosystems Surface Water GroundwaterDemographyEconomyLegislationInstitutionalKnowledgeCluster Water Availability Water Use Indicator

10 Physiography Climate  Extreme events and impacts Ecosystems  Impacts of land use changes Surface Water  Distribution, quantity and quality  Storage and supply infrastructure Groundwater Socio-Economy Demography  Population growth and urbanisation  Water related diseases and HIV/Aids  Access to safe water and sanitation services  Water use  Water related conflicts Economy Management Legislation  Governance of water resources  Implementation and adaptive capacity (finances, human res.) Institutional Knowledge  Data availability and quality  Knowledge gaps (climate change, water pollution, water res.) Key issues, adaptation and mitigation

11 Northern Africa Nile River Basin Nubian Groundwater Basin

12 Nile River and Nubian Groundwater Basins Vulnerable: high aridity, low water availability, high poverty and moderate management

13 Western Africa Senegal and Niger River Basins

14 High aridity, low water availability, water scarcity Vulnerable: high poverty, delayed sector reform, very low adaptive capacity

15 Southern Africa Zambezi and Orange River Basins

16 High aridity, low water availability, water scarcity Vulnerable: inadequate access, management and poverty

17 Key Issues – 1 Physiography Climate change & variability  Increased frequency of droughts and floods  Small reduction in Rainfall Large reduction in river flow …Persistent drought in the Sahel since 1970s… (includes largest part of Niger River Basin) Ecosystems  Biodiversity  Desertification  Wetland degradation …Deteriorating ecosystem integrity Lake Victoria Basin… Surface Water  Limited resources, unevenly distributed & over-exploited …Nubian Sst Aquifer Basin: non-renewable water resource…  Pollution …Industrial & municipal effluent loading Orange River Basin… Groundwater Key Issues

18 Key Issues – 2 Socio-Economy Demography  High population growth rate in urban areas  Water related diseases and HIV/Aids …Southern Africa has the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS…  Poor water and sanitation coverage and service delivery …Inadequate access to clean water and sanitation in peri-urban and rural areas…  Agriculture most important economic activity and biggest water consumer (80%)  Competition for water …High competition between irrigators and hydropower in Rufiji Basin… Economy

19 Key Issues – 3 Management Legislation  Water legislation  Inadequate institutional strength and capacity..Establishment of Co-operative Frameworks for Managing Shared Waters in the context of IWRM.. Institutional Knowledge  Data access, sharing, reliability and standardisation  Monitoring  Knowledge Gaps - Insufficient insight into climate change and variability - Water pollution inadequately addressed - Groundwater recharge largely unknown - Environmental Flow Requirements largely unknown   Water Scarcity   Water Scarcity    Water resources are at risk and water stress is expected to increase…

20 Adaptation and Mitigation Options Institutional & Legislative Framework  Water Sector Reforms  Managing (shared) waters and ecosystems  Communities' responses to water stress Capacity Building  Capacity enhancement programmes Data & Monitoring  Data rescue  Standardized assessments  Monitoring for improved early warning systems and effective water management Technologies  Surface / groundwater storage and use  Rainwater harvesting  Improvement urban water supply  Investment in wastewater treatment  Improvements in agricultural techniques  Water Trade

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