2 Fossil Fuels Section 11.Fuel – a substance that provides energy such as heat, light, motion, or electricity Energy Transformation 2. A change in one form of energy to another is called energy transformation. Examples: rubbing your hands together mechanical to heat; Burning a fuel in a car (chemical to mechanical)
4 Combustion3. When fuels are burned, the chemical energy that is released can be used to generate another form of energy. Combustion is the release of chemical energy.
5 Production of Electricity The chemical energy stored in fuels can be used to generate electricity.In a power plant, fuel is burned to create heat to make steam. The steam is used to spin a generator which makes electricity.The fuel can be coal, oil, natural gas, or even garbage.
7 What are Fossil Fuels?4. Fossil fuels - energy-rich substance formed from the remains of once-living organisms.5. Fossil fuels are made of hydrocarbons, which are energy rich chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.Three major fossil fuels:CoalOilNatural gas
8 Fossil Fuel: Coal6. Coal - a solid fossil fuel formed from plants and other organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.Coal is minedCoal is the most plentiful fossil fuel in the U.S.Disadvantages: increase erosion, runoff from mines can cause water pollution, burning the coal can cause air pollution and contribute to global warming.
10 Fossil Fuel: Oil7. Petroleum (Oil)- Thick , black, liquid formed from the remains of small animals, algae and protists that lived in oceans and seas hundreds of millions of years ago.Oil mostly found in tiny holes in sandstone and limestone.More then 1/3 of energy in the world is from oilU. S. consumes 1/3 of the world’s oil, but only 3% of the supply is located in the U.S.Where do we get the difference from?
11 OilLocated deep below the surface so we must drill for it and pump it out of the ground.
12 Oil Crude oil - when oil is first pumped out of the ground. Refinery - a factory where crude oil is separated into fuels and other products by heatingPetrochemicals - compounds that are made from oil. Used in plastics, paints medicines and cosmetics.
15 Fossil Fuel: Natural Gas 10. Natural gas - mixture of methane and other gasesForms from the same organisms as petroleumLess dense than oil so it rises above oil deposits and forms in the rock.Pipelines move the gas from its source to where it is used.
16 Natural Gas Advantages: Disadvantage The U.S. has a large supply Lower air pollution compared to other fossil fuelsEasy to transportDisadvantageHighly flammableStill a fossil fuel so it will eventually run outContributes to global warming
18 Fossil Fuels: Renewable or Non-renewable? 11. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take hundreds of millions or years to form.
19 Renewable Energy Section 2 pg. 361 Energy from the sun Solar energy - energy from the sunThe sun constantly gives off energy in the form of light and heat. (Q 2 on study guide)
20 4. How do solar plants work 4. How do solar plants work? Rows of giant mirrors focus the suns energy on a tank of water. The water boils and makes steam to spin a generator.5. Solar cells (Photovoltaic cells)- Converts light directly into electricity.6. Passive solar heating- Uses the heat from the sun to heat a building. This system does not use any pumps or fans. Uses glass and concrete to heat a building.7. Active solar heating- captures the heat from the sun and distributes it throughout the building using pumps and fans. Example: heating water in a solar collector on the roof and then pumping it to the bathroom for hot water.8. How are solar and hydro power related? They both are renewable and don’t pollute.
21 Solar Energy Problems Solar Technologies Only available when sun is shiningEnergy from the sun is spread outSolar TechnologiesSolar plants – giant mirrors focus on a tank of waterSolar cells – can be converted directly into electricitySolar heating Systems – passive and active
24 Hydroelectric Power Q #9 Flowing water can turn a turbine and generate electricity. Most widely used renewable resource todayBenefitNo air pollutionFlowing water provides a steady supply of energyProblemsMust have a damDams have negative effects on the environmentNeed a steady flow of water
31 Biomass Fuels Question 12 Biomass fuels are made from living things.Biomass fuels include wood, leaves, food wastes
32 Geothermal Energy Question 13 Geothermal energy-intense heat from Earth’s interior that warms the magmaUnlimited source of cheap energy
33 Geothermal EnergyProblems?Only a few places you can find magma that comes close to Earth’s surfaceOr a very deep well is required to tap into the energy which is expensive
34 Hydrogen Question 14Hydrogen- an abundant clean burning gas that has a lot of energy. Can be used to power cars Can be used to generate electricity Problems: Expensive to produce right now Explosive
35 Tidal EnergyTides -the rise and fall of large bodies of water due to the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, as well as the rotation of the earth.Tidal power plants take advantage of the movement of water as it gets higher and lower.