Presentation on theme: "Focus: How did the Protestant Reformation transform Western Europe? S – Source – Who wrote it? O- Occasion – Letter, Diary, Speech A- Audience – Who was."— Presentation transcript:
Focus: How did the Protestant Reformation transform Western Europe? S – Source – Who wrote it? O- Occasion – Letter, Diary, Speech A- Audience – Who was it meant for? P – Purpose – Why was it written?
Papal Schism In 1301 the king tried to tax the French clergy. The pope threatened to excommunicate the king and so was arrested. He was later released. The next pope, Clement V, moved the headquarters of the Church from Rome to Avignon in southern France. Many people felt that the French kings controlled the Church. RomeAvignon
Three Popes! The next six popes lived in Avignon. Pope Gregory then moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377. When Gregory died, the French cardinals did not like the new pope in Rome, so they elected a different pope in Avignon. Later, a Church council elected a third pope.
Calls for Reform John Wycliffe (1330-1384) –Questioned the authority of the pope Jan Hus (1370-1415) –Criticized the vast wealth of the Church Desiderius Erasmus (1469- 1536) –Attacked corruption in the Church
Luther Looks for Reforms Luther criticized Church practices, like selling indulgences. He wanted to begin a discussion within the Church about the true path to salvation. He nailed his Ninety- Five Theses, or arguments, to the door of Wittenberg cathedral for all to see.
Protestant Teaching: Justification by Faith Alone The Bible is the only source of truth. People can read and understand the Bible themselves. Salvation comes only through faith in Christ. A fifteenth-century hand-written Bible, in Latin Photo by Arpingstone, Wikipedia Commons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible
Excommunication Pope Leo X demanded that Luther recant 41 of his Ninety-Five Theses. Luther was brought before the Diet of Worms. In January 1521, Luther was excommunicated from the Church.
The Printing Press Luther’s ideas spread quickly with the help of the printing press. Luther’s supporters distributed copies of his speeches and essays far and wide. Millions of people sided with Luther against the Roman Catholic Church.
A New Church Luther soon had many followers. His supporters began to organize a new Christian denomination. Several German princes supported Luther. Lutherans and Catholics fought each other. The first wars ended with the Treaty of Augsburg, but fighting in Europe over religion continued to the mid- seventeenth century. Luther set fire to the pope’s order expelling him from the Church.
Lutheranism Luther’s followers disagreed with many of the teachings of the Catholic Church. They rejected the authority of Church councils and the pope. Reading the Bible was the only way to learn how to lead a good life. Luther translated the Bible into German.
The Reformation spreads to other countries. France: John Calvin preached the idea of “predestination” and that some people had been chosen by God for salvation. England: King Henry VIII refused to recognize the Roman Catholic Church and started a new church, the Church of England.
Religious Unity Ends – Protestants and Catholics
A. Which city became the center of the Catholic Church in the early 1300s? 1. Avignon 2. Rome 3. Liverpool 4. Wittenberg
B. Which two groups were divided during the Great Schism? 1. Catholics and Protestants 2. Supporters of the pope in Avignon and the pope in Rome 3. Calvinists and Lutherans 4. Priests and nuns
C. Martin Luther was 1. A Roman Pope who opposed the selling of indulgences 2. A French philosopher who criticized the Church 3. An English priest who questioned the authority of the pope 4. A German monk who challenged the Catholic Church
D. What did an indulgence from the Church provide? 1. Freedom of religion 2. The right to vote in papal elections 3. A pardon for a sin 4. Church sacraments
Which of the following was a cause of the Reformation? 1. The spread of Islam to Western Europe 2. An economic recession 3. War between England and France 4. Opposition to Roman Catholic Church taxes