6 The ReformationDefine reform: a significant change in society. What did people want to reform during this time? The Roman Catholic Church
7 Problems in the ChurchCorruptionPolitical Conflicts
8 A. Causes of the Reformation During the Renaissance, many people became concerned about the wealth and power of the Catholic ChurchMany people felt the Church was falling away from the teachings of the BibleDue to the invention of the Printing Press, people began to read the Bible for themselves.Political rulers were tired of sending money to the Vatican in Rome and were looking for some way to keep the money/power for themselves.
10 Political Conflict KINGS AND QUEENS POPES King Philip IV of France (ruled 1285 – 1314); source:Pope Urban VI (reigned 1378 – 1389); source:
11 B. Martin Luther: He was a German Monk He was upset over the selling of indulgences for the forgiveness of sins. (The Pope was raising money to build the St. Peter’s Basilica.)In 1517, he nailed his 95 Theses (a list of complaints against the Catholic Church) to the door of the Wittenberg ChurchHe translated the New Testament into German and encouraged people to read and interpret it.
12 His ideas spread through the use of the Printing Press. The Pope declared him a heretic and excommunicated him (kicked him out of the church)His ideas developed into the religion called: Lutheran
13 Luther Looks for Reforms Luther criticized Church practices, like selling indulgences.He wanted to begin a discussion within the Church about the true path to salvation.He nailed his Ninety-Five Theses, or arguments, to the door of Wittenberg cathedral for all to see.Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses; source:
14 Protestant Teaching: Justification by Faith Alone The Bible is the only source of truth.People can read and understand the Bible themselves.Salvation comes only through faith in Christ.Luther’s Bible; source:Luther’s Bible
15 ExcommunicationPope Leo X demanded that Luther recant 41 of his Ninety-Five Theses.Luther was brought before the Diet of Worms.In January 1521, Luther was excommunicated from the Church.Luther before the Diet of Worms; source:
16 The Printing PressLuther’s ideas spread quickly with the help of the printing press.Luther’s supporters distributed copies of his speeches and essays far and wide.Millions of people sided with Luther against the Roman Catholic Church.Printing press; source:
17 LutheranismLuther’s followers disagreed with many of the teachings of the Catholic Church.They rejected the authority of Church councils and the pope.Reading the Bible was the only way to learn how to lead a good life.Luther translatedthe Bible intoGermanLuther’s Bible; source:
18 The Reformation spread to other countries. France and Switzerland:John Calvin preached the idea of “predestination” and that some people had been chosen by God for salvation.England:King Henry VIII refused to recognize the Roman Catholic Church and started a new church, the Church of England.John Calvin; engraving by René Boyvin; source:Henry VIII (ruled 1509 – 1547) by Hans Holbein the Younger; source:
19 C. Results of the Reformation Formation of New Christian ReligionsReligions that denied the universal authority of the pope and rested as the source of truth called Protestants.In Switzerland, John Calvin established a church that would later become the Presbyterian and Congregational Churches.He encouraged hard work: “Predestination” a person was predestined for salvation based on hard work.He felt people should read and understand the Bible for themselves.
20 In England, Henry VIII broke from Catholic Church and the pope. He divorced his wife to marry a woman he hoped would bear him a male heir.The pope excommunicated himSupported by his people, he created a national religion Church of England with the English monarch as the head.
21 Henry the VIIIPut on page 29DivorcedBeheadedDiedSurvived
22 C. Results of the Reformation Now What?Do your workpage on 26Use the Henry VIII handout, to fill in the graphic organizer about him. This will be graded.B. Martin LutherC. Results of the Reformation