Who was Martin Luther? Born in Germany in 1483. After surviving a violent storm, he vowed to become a monk. Lived in the city of Wittenberg. Died in 1546.
Problems in the Church Corruption Political Conflicts
What happens to spark the Reformation? Pope Leo X needs money to build St. Peter’s Basilica…so he sells indulgences! –Indulgences- were pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul’s time in purgatory = (People could buy forgiveness)
Corruption The Church raised money through practices like simony and selling indulgences.
Advantages of Buying Indulgences Go Directly to Heaven! Do not go to Hell! Do not go to Purgatory! Get through Purgatory faster! Do not pass Go!
Language Barriers Most uneducated people didn’t understand Latin, but knew the local common language or “vernacular”. –Almost all Bibles were written in LATIN before the Reformation. It was the job of the church clergy to translate the Bible to people.
Papal Schism In 1301, the king tried to tax the French clergy. The pope threatened to excommunicate the king and so was arrested. He was later released. The next pope, Clement V, moved the headquarters of the Church from Rome to Avignon in southern France. Many people felt that the French kings controlled the Church. Rome Avignon
Three Popes! The next six popes lived in Avignon. Pope Gregory then moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377. When Gregory died, the French cardinals did not like the new pope in Rome, so they elected a different pope in Avignon. Later, a Church council elected a third pope.
Luther Looks for Reforms Luther criticized Church practices, like selling indulgences. He wanted to begin a discussion within the Church about the true path to salvation. He nailed his Ninety- Five Theses, or arguments, to the door of Wittenberg cathedral for all to see on 31st Oct. 1517.
A list of things he thought were wrong with the Catholic Church (95 Complaints) He criticized: The Power of the Pope The Extreme Wealth of the Church Indulgences (Catholic concept of Salvation)
Protestant Teaching: Justification by Faith Alone The Bible is the only source of truth. People can read and understand the Bible themselves. Salvation comes only through faith in Christ. Luther’s Bible
Excommunication Pope Leo X demanded that Luther recant 41 of his Ninety-Five Theses. Luther was brought before the Diet of Worms. In January 1521, Luther was excommunicated from the Church.
The Printing Press Luther’s ideas spread quickly with the help of the printing press. Luther’s supporters distributed copies of his speeches and essays far and wide. Millions of people sided with Luther against the Roman Catholic Church.
A New Church Luther soon had many followers. His supporters began to organize a new Christian church. Several German princes supported Luther. Lutherans and Catholics fought each other. The first wars ended with the Treaty of Augsburg, but fighting in Europe over religion continued to the mid- seventeenth century. Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre
Lutheranism Luther’s followers disagreed with many of the teachings of the Catholic Church. They rejected the authority of Church councils and the pope. Reading the Bible was the only way to learn how to lead a good life. Luther translated the Bible into German
The Reformation spread to other countries. France and Switzerland: John Calvin preached the idea of “predestination” and that some people had been chosen by God for salvation.Followers are called reformed or Calvinists. England: King Henry VIII refused to recognize the Roman Catholic Church and started a new church, the Church of England.
Started in Switzerland – Calvinists England = Puritans Scotland = Presbyterians Holland = Dutch Reform France = Huguenots Germany = Reform Church
In England, the Reformation began with the King! King Henry VIII /1491.1547/ –The king who had six wives… He wanted a SON! The pope didn’t let him divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, so he founded a new church in England, called the Anglican Church. The English king became the head of the church!!!
Longstanding Effects of Henry VIII His legitimate children: Mary, Elizabeth, and Edward (dies). –Queen Mary I or “Bloody Mary” Raised Catholic like her mother Catherine of Aragon; she reestablished the Catholic Church in England. She killed many protestants and had approximately 300 heretics burned at the stake. –Queen Elizabeth I /1558-1603./(Ends the House of Tudor) Raised Protestant and ruled England for 44 years. Ruled during the Spanish Armada, and never married…known as the Virgin Queen.