Presentation on theme: "Types of waste Waste = any unwanted item or substance resulting from a human activity or process Municipal solid waste = from homes, institutions,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of wasteWaste = any unwanted item or substance resulting from a human activity or processMunicipal solid waste = from homes, institutions, small businessesIndustrial solid waste = from production of consumer goods, mining, petroleum extraction, agricultureHazardous waste = toxic, chemically reactive, flammable, or corrosiveWastewater = water used in homes, businesses, etc., and drained or flushed, plus runoff from streets
2 Why manage waste?Waste degrades water, soil, and air quality; does environmental and ecological harm.Waste does harm to human health.Waste is a symptom of inefficiency; wastes money.Waste is unpleasant aesthetically.
3 Ways to manage waste Three components of waste management: Source reduction, or reducing the amount of waste entering the waste stream, is best.Recovery (recycling and composting) is next best.Disposal is the least desired option.
4 Sources and Types of Solid Wastes MSW includes all the community waste with the exception of industrial process waste and agriculture wastesIt is important to define the various types of solid wastes that are generated and the sources to design and operate of the functional elements associated with the management of solid waste
5 Sources and Types of Solid Wastes Typical facilities, activities, locations where wastes are generatedSourceFood wastes, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, leather, yard wastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes (e.g., bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, batteries, oil, tires), and household hazardous wastesSingle and multifamily dwellingsResidentialIndustrial process waste, scrap materials, etc. Non - industrial waste including food wastes, construction and demolition wastes, rubbish, ashes , hazardous wastes, ashes, special wastesLight and heavymanufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plantsIndustrial
6 (Cont’d) Types of solid wastes Typical facilities, activities, locations where wastes are generatedSourcePaper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastesStores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings, etc.CommercialSame as commercialSchools, hospitals, prisons, government centersInstitutionalWood, steel, concrete, dirt, etc.New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings, broken pavementConstruction and Demolition
7 Typical facilities, activities, locations where wastes are generated (Cont’d)Types of solid wastesTypical facilities, activities, locations where wastes are generatedSourceStreet sweepings; landscape and tree trimmings; general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas; sludgeStreet cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plantsMunicipalServices (excluding treatment facilities)Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rubbish, hazardous waste.Field and row crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farms, etc.Agricultural
8 Municipal solid wastePaper is the biggest component of municipal solid waste in the United States.
9 Nature of Municipal Solid Waste Organic (Combustible)Inorganic (non-combustible)PutrescibleRecyclableHazardousInfectious
10 Composition of Solid Wastes Composition is the term used to describe the individual components that make up a solid waste stream and their relative distributionInformation on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating equipment needs, systems and management programme and plans
11 Composition of Solid Wastes The residential and commercial portion makes up about 50 to 75 percent of total MSW generated in a communityThe actual percentage distribution will depend onThe extent of construction and demolition activitiesThe extent of the municipal services providedThe types of water and wastewater treatment process that are used
12 Typical Physical Composition of Residential MSW
13 Composition of Solid Waste The percentage distribution values for the components in MSW vary withLocationSeasoneconomic conditionspopulationSocial behaviorClimateMarket for waste materialsOther factor
14 Types of Materials Recovered from MSW AluminumPaperPlasticsGlassFerrous Metals (Iron and Steel)Nonferrous wasteYard waste collected separatelyConstruction and demolition wastes
15 Industrial solid waste Each year U.S. industries generate 7.6 billion tons of total waste.97% of this is wastewaterIndustrial solid waste = roughly equivalent to amount of municipal solid wasteRegulatory schemes are different:Federal government regulates municipalState or local government regulates industrial
16 Industrial solid waste Waste is generated at several points in the life cycle of products.At each stage there are opportunities for efficiency improvements, source reduction, and recycling.
17 Industrial ecologyInvolves modifying techniques of processing and manufacturing, and finding new uses for materials previously considered wasteSeeks to redesign industrial systems to maximize:Physical efficiencyANDEconomic efficiencyTries to make sure all by-products produced are used, either in the same process or a different process
18 Hazardous waste Waste that poses a potential danger to human health Four criteria:• Ignitability: substances catch fire• Corrosivity: substances corrode metals• Reactivity: substances are chemically unstable and react with other chemicals in dangerous ways• Toxicity: substances are known to be harmful to human health
19 Hazardous waste There are many types of hazardous waste. Two are worst because they persist for a long time without breaking down:Heavy metals(mercury, lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, tin, copper — from industry, mining, consumer products)Organic compounds(synthetic pesticides, petroleum products, rubber, solvents, preservatives…)
20 Household hazardous waste We all have many hazardous substances in our homes and everyday lives.Many communities organize pickups or collection centers for this waste.
21 Radioactive waste Wastes that contain radioactive material A special type of hazardous wasteRadioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research, medicine and militaryRadioactive waste typically comprises a number of radioisotopes: unstable configurations of elements that decay, emitting ionizing radiation which can be harmful to humans and the environment.