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Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste

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1 Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste

2 Overview of Chapter 24 Solid Waste Waste Prevention Hazardous Waste
Types of Solid Waste Waste Prevention Reducing the Amount of Waste Reusing Products Recycling Materials Hazardous Waste Types of Hazardous Waste Management of Hazardous Waste Environmental Justice

3 Solid Waste US generates more solid waste per capita than any other country 2.1kg per person per day Types of Solid Waste Municipal solid waste Solid material discarded by homes, office buildings, retail stores, schools, hospitals, prisons, etc Relatively small portion of solid waste produced Non-municipal solid waste Solid waste generated by industry, agriculture, and mining

4 Composition of Municipal Solid Waste

5 Disposal of Solid Waste
Three methods Sanitary Landfills Incineration Recycling

6 Sanitary Landfill Compacting and burying waste under a shallow layer of soil Most common method of disposal

7 Sanitary Landfill Problems Methane gas production by microorganisms
Contamination of surface water & ground water by leachate Not a long-term remedy Few new facilities being opened Closing a full landfill is very expensive


9 Sanitary Landfill Special Problem of Plastic Special Problem of Tires
Much of plastic is from packaging Chemically stable and do not readily break down and decompose Special Problem of Tires Cannot be melted and reused for tires Made from materials that cannot be recycled Can be incinerated or shredded

10 Incineration Volume of solid waste reduced by 90%
Produces heat that can make steam to generate electricity Produce less carbon emissions than fossil fuel power plants (right)

11 Incineration Types of Incinerators Mass burn (below) Modular


13 Incinerator Problems Associated with Incineration Yields air pollution
Produce large amounts of ash Site selection often controversial

14 Composting Includes: Reduces yard waste in landfills
Food scraps Sewage sludge Agricultural manure Yard waste Reduces yard waste in landfills Can be sold or distributed to community

15 Waste Prevention Three Goals (1) Reduce the amount of waste
(2) Reuse products (3) Recycle materials

16 Reducing Waste Purchase products with less packaging

17 Reducing Waste Source reduction Pollution Prevention Act (1990)
Products are designed and manufactured in ways that decrease the volume of solid waste in the waste stream Pollution Prevention Act (1990) Dematerialization Progressive decrease in the size and weight of a product as a result of technological improvements

18 Reusing Products Refilling glass beverage bottles
Heavier glass that costs more Japan recycles almost all bottles Reused 20 times

19 Recycling Materials Every ton of recycled paper saves: Recycle
17 trees 7000 gallons of water 4100 kwatt-hrs of energy 3 cubic yards of landfill space Recycle Glass bottles, newspapers, steel cans, plastic bottles, cardboard, office paper

20 Recycling Recycling Paper Recycling Glass US recycles 50%
Many developed countries are higher Recycling Glass US recycles 25% Costs less than new glass Can be used to make glassphalt (right)

21 Recycling Recycling Aluminum
Making new can from recycled one costs far less than making a brand new one

22 Recycling Recycling Metals other than Aluminum Recycling Plastic
Lead, gold, iron, steel, silver and zinc Metallic composition is often unknown Makes recycling difficult Recycling Plastic Less than 20% is recycled Less expensive to make from raw materials

23 Recycling Recycling Tires Few products are made from old tires
Playground equipment Trashcans Garden hose Carpet Roofing materials 36% of tires are currently recycled to make other products

24 Integrated Waste Management

25 Hazardous Waste Any discarded chemical that threatens human health or the environment Reactive, corrosive, explosive or toxic chemicals Types of Hazardous Waste Dioxins PCBs Radioactive waste

26 Case-In-Point Hanford Nuclear Reservation

27 Management of Hazardous Waste
Chemical accidents National Response Center notified Typically involves oil, gasoline or other petroleum spill Current Management Policies Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976, 1984) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)

28 Management of Hazardous Waste
Cleaning up existing hazardous waste: superfund program 400,000 waste sites Leaking chemical storage tanks and drums (right) Pesticides dumps Piles of mining wastes Must be cleaned up

29 Management of Hazardous Waste
Superfund National Priorities List 2006: sites on the list States with the greatest number of sites New Jersey (115) California (93) Pennsylvania (93) New York (86) Michigan (65)

30 Management of Hazardous Waste
Biological Treatment of Hazardous Chemicals Bioremediation Phytoremediation Management the Waste we are Producing Now (1) source reduction (2) conversion to less hazardous materials (3) long-term storage

31 Management of Hazardous Waste
Hazardous Waste Landfill

32 Environmental Justice
Environmental Justice and Ethical Issues Right of every citizen, regardless of age, race, gender, social class, to adequate protection from environmental hazards Fundamental human right Grassroots campaign Mandating environmental Justice- Federal Level

33 Environmental Justice
International Waste Management Developed countries sometimes send their waste to developing countries Less expensive than following laws within the country Controversial aspect of waste management Basel Convention (1989) Restricts international transport of hazardous waste

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