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Waste Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Waste Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Waste Chapter 19

2 Solid Waste Objectives 1. Name one characteristic that makes a material biodegradable. 2. Identify two types of solid waste. 3. Describe how a modern landfill works. 4. Name two environmental problems caused by landfills.

3 Generation of Wastes Every year the US generates 10 billion metric tons of solid waste (discarded material) We are generating 2X more wastes than 40 years ago

4 The average person throws away 4.4 lbs of solid wastes a day
Many states ship it off We are running out of space to put our waste

5 Biodegradable can be broken down
Types of Wastes Biodegradable can be broken down Newspapers, cotton fibers… Non biodegradable can not be broken down Plastics, polyester, nylon

6 Plastic material creates a huge disposal problem
Made from petroleum Literally will never decompose in our land fills

7 Types Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Waste produced by households and businesses 70% is manufacturing wastes 2% of all solid waste

8 What we throw away 38.1 paper 12.1 yard waste 10.9 food 10.5 plastics
% type 38.1 paper 12.1 yard waste 10.9 food 10.5 plastics 7.8 metals 6.6 rubber, leather, other textiles 5.5 glass 5.3 wood 3.2 other

9 Manufacturing, Mining, and agricultural wastes
56% of total is Manufacturing waste Scrap metal, plastics, paper, sludge, ash

10 9% of total is Agricultural waste
Is biodegradable but pesticides may contaminate Remaining portion belongs to mining Piles of mine debris

11 Solid Waste Management
57% of all waste is sent to landfills 28% is burned 28 % is recycled (an increase of 22% since 1970)

12 Landfills Permanent waste disposal facilities Need to contain wastes, no contact with ground water

13 Problems Leachate-liquid that has passes through compacted solid waste in a landfill Contains contaminates Should be monitored

14 Methane Produced by decomposing organic wastes Usually pumped out and burned as fuel Leaks occur and if ignited can cause an explosion

15 Safeguarding landfills
Resource Conservation and Resource Act (RCRA) 1976 (1986) Requires landfills to reduce pollution

16 Lined with clay and plastic
Collection of leachate Vent pipes

17 NIMBY NOT IN MY BACK YARD Total number of land fills in 1988 was 8000 In 1999 the total number was 2300

18 Many filled to capacity
EPA estimated within 10 years active land fills will fill to capacity

19 Incinerators Can reduce wastes by 75% Can produce polluting gases Material can be toxic

20 Reducing Solid Wastes Objectives
1. Identify three ways you can produce less waste. 2. Describe how you can use your consumer buying power to reduce solid waste. 3. List the steps that an item must go through to be recycled. 4. List two benefits of composting. 5. Name one advantage and one disadvantage to producing degradable plastic.

21 Source Reduction Method of reducing solid waste Any change in design, manufacture, purchase, or use of materials or products to reduce amount of toxicity before they become MSW

22 Reducing Solid Waste Buy less Less packaging, rechargeable batteries, use products that last longer

23 Recycle Process of reusing materials or recovering valuable materials from the waste or scrap Saves energy, water, and other resources

24 Examples 95% less energy is used to make aluminum cans from recycled cans than from ore 75% less E is used to make steel from scrap than from ore

25 Steps in recycling Material is collected and sorted Material is taken to a processing facility Material is made into a product New product is sold to consumers

26 Composting 15% of are waste can be composted Biodegradable Compost- a dark, brown crumbly material made of decomposed plant and animal material

27 Changing the material we use
Using products that can be recycled Degradable plastics

28 Hazardous Waste Objectives
1. Name two characteristics of hazardous waste. 2. Describe one law that governs hazardous waste. 3. Describe two ways in which hazardous waste is disposed.

29 Hazardous waste is any waste that is a risk to the health of humans or other living things

30 Types Dyes, cleaners, solvents PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) Plastics, solvents, lubricants, sealants Heavy metals Pesticides

31 Radioactive RCRW (Recource Conservation and Recovery Act – 1976) requires records of disposal Super Fund Act 1980 – EPA right to sue, order cleanup

32 Hazardous Waste Management
US produces 252 metric tons of waste every year How do we manage it? Prevent or use less Reuse it Change to non hazardous material

33 Land Disposal Deep well injection Surface impoundment Biologically treating Use of bacteria Plants Biological chemicals Burn It Export it

34 Hazardous Wastes at Home
Dispose of properly Includes batteries, household chemicals, oil

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