3 Modeling the PlanetGlobes are the best models. However, they are not convenient.
4 Maps Maps are flat 2-dimensional representation of earth’s surface. All maps distort Earth’s features.Cartographer – map maker
5 Map Projections – help reduce distortion MercatorProjects the planet as if a large cylinder had been wrapped around itDistorts the areas near the polesGnomonic ProjectionIs made as if a cone of paper had been wrapped around EarthUseful for mapping large mid latitude areas
6 Latitude and Longitude Earth is divided into 4 hemispheresEquator divides the north and south hemispherePrime Meridian (0°) and the 180° meridian divide the East and West hemisphere
7 Latitude lines or parallels circle the world from east to west. Measured in degrees north or south of the equatorEquator 0°, North Pole 90°N, South Pole 90°S180° between the Poles
8 LongitudeLines that run north to south that give position East or West of the Prime Meridian 0°Longitude lines can be numbered from 0° to 180° East or WestOne degree is divided into 60 minutes which is divided into 60 sec
9 Map Scale – how a maps feature compare in size to the actual earth Fractional 1/24, : 24,000Graphically I—1—2—3—4—I milesVerbal “one inch equals one mile”
12 How Cartographers (map makers) traditionally worked Plane-table survey – climb to the area’s highest vantage point and draw a map of whatever features he saw.
13 How Technology has changed mapmaking Photography – pictures from aboveRadar – Side looking radar
14 Satellite Technology Landsat Imaging Radar EOS – Earth Observing System
15 ComputersUse Satellite information to decode and make images out of the data they collectGlobal Positioning System (GPS)Allows people to determine their position, speed and time anywhere in the world at anytime in any weather24 satellites that follow circular orbits above EarthGeographic Information Systems (GIS)Combines satellite, statistical survey and traditional land surveys to make more useful maps.