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Computer Architecture and Organization

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Architecture and Organization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Architecture and Organization
Chapter one

2 Outlines Computer Architecture. Computer Organization.
Difference between them. Structure and function of computer.

3 Computer Architecture
Definition: Computer Architecture refer to those attributes that are visible to a programmer. Or Those attributer that have a direct effect on the logical execution of a program.

4 Computer Architecture(cont..)
Attributes like: Instruction set. Number of bits used to represent data. I/O mechanisms Addressing techniques.

5 Computer Organization
Organization refers to operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. (Organization is how features are implemented).

6 Computer Organization(cont..)
Attributes are hardware details transparent to programmers Control signals. Interface between computer and peripherals. Memory technology.

7 What is the difference between them?
Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. e.g. Is there a multiply instruction? Organization is how features are implemented Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or it is perform by repeated addition? Example: IBM/370 architecture different models (organizations)

8 Cont.. All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture
The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture Organization differs within members of the same family, e.g. floating point numerical co-processors with names like 8087, and With very few exceptions, the and subsequent x86 processors then integrated this x87 functionality on chip.

9 Structure & Function Computer is a complex system then how can we design/describe it? Hierarchic system: A set of interrelated subsystems, each subsystem hierarchic in structure until some lowest level of elementary subsystems is reached At each level of the system, the designer is concerned with structure and function.

10 Structure & Function (cont..)
Structure is the way in which components relate to each other. Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure

11 Function There are four basic computer function: Data processing
Data storage Data movement Control

12 Functional view of computer

13 Operations (1) Data movement
Example from keyboard or mouse to the screen

14 Operations (2) Storage Example save data to a disk

15 Operations(3) Processing from/to storage
Example updating bank statement

16 Operation(4) Processing from storage to I/O
Example printing a bank statement

17 Structure Four main structural components CPU Main Memory I/O Devices
System Interconnection

18 Structure-Top Level Peripherals computer Communication Lines
Main Memory Central processing unit computer System Interconnection Input Output Communication Lines

19 Structure – The CPU CPU Registers computer
Arithmetic and logic unit computer I/O Internal CPU interconnection CPU System bus Memory Control unit

20 Structure – The Control Unit
Sequencing logic CPU Registers Control unit registers and decoders Internal bus Control unit ALU Control memory

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