Presentation on theme: "Computer Architecture & Organization"— Presentation transcript:
1 Computer Architecture & Organization Architecture attributes visible to the programmerInstruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques, etc.e.g. Is there a multiply instruction?Control signals, interfaces, memory technology, etc.e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?hmmm …chicken/egg problem ?Organization how features are implemented
2 What Should I already know re Computer Arch & Org ? “Black Box” !connected devicesPeripheralscommunication linkskeyboardcomputermousenetwork..displaytelephonecabledisk / opticalwirelessspeakersprinterother ?other ?
3 Function & Structure ITBB SYSC 2001 will look inside the black box (ITBB)!peripherals and commn links are outside black boxWill construct various models of ITBB components:Function the operation of individual components as parts of the structureStructure how components relate to each other
4 Coordinates How Information is Used IMPORTANT SLIDE !FunctionALL computer functions are:Data PROCESSINGData STORAGEData MOVEMENTCONTROLNOTHING ELSE!Data = InformationCoordinates How Information is Used
5 Functional view of Black Box Operating Environmentsource/sink for informationconnections to peripherals and commn linksMOVEMENTITBBCONTROLPROCESSINGSTORAGE
6 Operations (1) Data movement e.g. copy a file between disks
7 e.g. load a text file for editing Operations (2) Storagee.g. load a text file for editing
8 Operation (3) Processing from/to storage e.g. compute an intermediate result from some operands & save for later use
9 Operation (4) Processing from storage to I/O e.g. compute and display a result from some operands
10 Structure - Top Level ITBB MoreBlackBoxesITBB!PeripheralsComputerInputOutputComputerCentralProcessingUnitSystemsInterconnectionCommunicationlinesMainMemoryWhat about Function?
11 Structure - The CPU Drilling Down I(ITBB)! What about Function? CPU ComputerArithmeticandLogic UnitRegistersI/OSystemBusCPUInternal CPUInterconnectionMemoryDrillingDownI(ITBB)!ControlUnitWhat about Function?
12 Structure - The Control Unit Too deep for SYSC 2001Control UnitCPUSequencingLogicALUControlUnitInternalBusControl UnitRegisters andDecodersRegistersControlMemoryWhat about Function?
13 Brief History of Computer Evolution Two phases:before VLSI 1945 – 1978ENIACIASIBMPDP-8VLSI present daymicroprocessors !VLSI = Very Large Scale Integrationsee text discussion
14 Growth in CPU Transistor Count Cell MGrowth in CPU Transistor CountPentium EvolutionPowerPC EvolutionMoore’s Law
15 Speeding Up the Processor PipeliningOn board cacheOn board L1 & L2 cacheBranch predictionData flow analysisSpeculative executionchicken / egg again !we’ll see some of these as the course progresses
18 Some Solutions Increase number of bits retrieved at one time Make DRAM “wider” rather than “deeper”Change DRAM interfaceCacheReduce frequency of memory accessMore complex cache, and cache on chipIncrease interconnection bandwidthHigh speed busesHierarchy of buses