Presentation on theme: "Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies Lesson 1 Providing First Aid
2 You’ll learn to…Relate the nation’s goal & objectives for improving individual, family, & community health to learning & using appropriate first-aid procedures.Understand the importance of learning first aid.Analyze strategies for responding to accidental injuries.
3 First AidIs the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided.Learning first-aid is an important step in meeting the nation’s health goals in Healthy People 2010.Using first-aid can reduce the number of people who sustain further injury or die in the absence of early & effective treatment.
4 Universal Precautions Are actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other body fluids as if they contained pathogens.Wearing protective glovesUsing a rescue maskWashing hands before & after providing care
5 Responding to an Emergency Recognizing an emergency is the first step in responding to it.Common indicators of an emergency include:Unusual sights, sounds, odors, and behaviors
6 Steps to take in an Emergency Check, Call, Care Check the scene and the victimCall for help or the local emergency numberCare for the victim
7 CHECK the scene & the victim Look the scene over & try to answer these questions:Is the scene safe?What happened?How many victims are there?Can bystanders help?
8 Is the scene safe? Spilled chemicals Traffic Fire Downed electrical linesExtreme weatherPoisonous gasBefore you can help the victim, you must make sure the scene is safe for you and others.If necessary, assign a bystander to direct traffic away.
9 Checking a victim Never move a seriously injured person unless: There is immediate dangerYou have to reach a more seriously injured personYou need to move a victim to provide proper carePractice moving a victim to provide proper care (p. 17)Check for consciousness- if not conscious call 9-1-1Sometimes the most important thing a person can do to help in an emergency is to call for help
10 Call 9-1-1 Call first situations: An unconscious person Cardiac emergenciesCall fast situations:Breathing, bleeding, and other non-cardiac emergenciesWhen To Call & How To Call EMS (pp ) read the list aloudExamples of call fast situations:Any victim of submersion or near drowningCardiac arrest associated with traumaA victim of drug overdose
11 Care for a Conscious Victim Introduce yourselfGet permission to treatAsk what happenedGive careAsk where the pain is and what it’s like:Burning, aching, sharp, stinging and how bad it is.Be calm and patientSpeak normally and simply
12 Care always care for life-threatening first Once you have checked the scene and the victim, you may need to provide care.While waiting for EMS to arrive, watch for changes in the victim’s breathing and consciousness.Help the victim rest comfortably.Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.Reassure the victim.
16 Scrape (abrasion)Most common type of wound caused by skin that has been rubbed or scrapped awayUsually painful because scraping away of outer skin exposes nerve endings
17 Incision (cut / laceration) May be jagged or smooth edgesCommonly caused by sharp objects (glass, knife)Can also be caused by a blow from a blunt objectDeep lacerations can result in heavy bleeding and damage to nerves, blood vessels, & other soft tissues.
18 AvulsionA cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially / completely torn awayMay hang like a flapSevered (finger)Can sometimes be reattached
19 PunctureCaused when a pointed object pieces the skin (nail, tack, bullet)Is small, but deepUsually does not cause heavy external bleeding, but may cause internal bleedingAn object that remains embedded in the wound is called an impaled object
20 First Aid for Bleeding First put on protective equipment (gloves) Wash a minor wound with mild soap & running water to remove dirt and debrisDo not attempt to clean a severe injury (avulsion)Always wash hands before and after care
21 Caring for an Open Wound Control bleeding (sterile dressing-direct pressure)Cover and press firmlyRaise / elevate above heart (if no broken bone is suspected)Apply bandage snugly over dressing (if bleeding does not stop apply additional dressing)If bleeding cannot be controlled, put pressure to supplying arteryCall for help
22 How to Apply a Pressure Bandage Place a dressing over the woundSecure the roller bandage over the dressingUsing overlapping turns, cover the dressing completelySecure the bandage in place; tie tightly over woundShould be tight enough to maintain pressure, but not so tight that it cuts off circulation
23 Pressure Point Bleeding Control If elevating & applying pressure does not stop bleeding, pressure point bleeding control must be used.This procedure involves pressing the main artery against a boneIt should be used only when absolutely necessary; seriously injured or possibly in shock.
25 Burns are caused by: Heat – most common Chemicals Electrical current Radiation (from the sun)
26 Burns Are a specific type of soft tissue injury You can describe burns by their cause or by their depth (the deeper the burn, the more severe it is)First degree are superficialSecond & Third degree are deepA critical burn can be life-threatening
28 Superficial (First Degree) Involve the first layer of skin (outer layer)Skin is red & dry & usually painfulMay be swollenMost sunburns are superficialCool the burn with cool running water (not ice) for 10 minutesPat dry & cover with a sterile bandage.
30 Partial Thickness (Second Degree) Involves top layers of skinSkin is red & blistered that may open & seep clear fluidUsually painful & often swellsCool the burn with cold water (not ice) and elevate.Wrap the area loosely with sterile, dry dressing.Do not pop blistersSeek medical attention
33 Full Thickness (Third Degree) Destroys all layers of skin & any/all underlying structures (fat, muscle/bones,nerves)Burns look brown/black (charred) with tissue underneath appearing whiteCan be either extremely painful or relatively painless (nerve endings destroyed)Call for medical help immediatelyCool with large amount of water and cover the area with dry sterile dressing
37 Chemical BurnsChemicals (cleansers, lawn & garden sprays, paint removers, bleach) come in contact with skin or eyesMay cause severe burns (longer contact)Flush with large amounts of cool running waterRemove clothing
39 Electrical BurnsNever go near a victim of an electrical burn until you are sure the power source is turned offCaused by:Power linesLightningDefective electrical equipmentElectrical outlets
40 Electrical Burns continued Severity depends on how long the victim was in contact with power source & strength & type of current & path it takesOften deepTwo wounds-enter/exit
41 Ch 28 Lesson 1- Review Questions Define first aidWhy is it necessary to use universal precautions when giving first aid to a person who is bleeding?What are the steps you should take in an emergency?Most burns are caused by?What are the types of burns?