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Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies

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1 Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies
Lesson 1 Providing First Aid

2 You’ll learn to… Relate the nation’s goal & objectives for improving individual, family, & community health to learning & using appropriate first-aid procedures. Understand the importance of learning first aid. Analyze strategies for responding to accidental injuries.

3 First Aid Is the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided. Learning first-aid is an important step in meeting the nation’s health goals in Healthy People 2010. Using first-aid can reduce the number of people who sustain further injury or die in the absence of early & effective treatment.

4 Universal Precautions
Are actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all blood and other body fluids as if they contained pathogens. Wearing protective gloves Using a rescue mask Washing hands before & after providing care

5 Responding to an Emergency
Recognizing an emergency is the first step in responding to it. Common indicators of an emergency include: Unusual sights, sounds, odors, and behaviors

6 Steps to take in an Emergency Check, Call, Care
Check the scene and the victim Call for help or the local emergency number Care for the victim

7 CHECK the scene & the victim
Look the scene over & try to answer these questions: Is the scene safe? What happened? How many victims are there? Can bystanders help?

8 Is the scene safe? Spilled chemicals Traffic Fire
Downed electrical lines Extreme weather Poisonous gas Before you can help the victim, you must make sure the scene is safe for you and others. If necessary, assign a bystander to direct traffic away.

9 Checking a victim Never move a seriously injured person unless:
There is immediate danger You have to reach a more seriously injured person You need to move a victim to provide proper care Practice moving a victim to provide proper care (p. 17) Check for consciousness- if not conscious call 9-1-1 Sometimes the most important thing a person can do to help in an emergency is to call for help

10 Call 9-1-1 Call first situations: An unconscious person
Cardiac emergencies Call fast situations: Breathing, bleeding, and other non-cardiac emergencies When To Call & How To Call EMS (pp ) read the list aloud Examples of call fast situations: Any victim of submersion or near drowning Cardiac arrest associated with trauma A victim of drug overdose

11 Care for a Conscious Victim
Introduce yourself Get permission to treat Ask what happened Give care Ask where the pain is and what it’s like: Burning, aching, sharp, stinging and how bad it is. Be calm and patient Speak normally and simply

12 Care always care for life-threatening first
Once you have checked the scene and the victim, you may need to provide care. While waiting for EMS to arrive, watch for changes in the victim’s breathing and consciousness. Help the victim rest comfortably. Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated. Reassure the victim.

13 Types of Injuries

14 Open Wounds Abrasion (scrape) Incision (cut / laceration) Avulsion


16 Scrape (abrasion) Most common type of wound caused by skin that has been rubbed or scrapped away Usually painful because scraping away of outer skin exposes nerve endings

17 Incision (cut / laceration)
May be jagged or smooth edges Commonly caused by sharp objects (glass, knife) Can also be caused by a blow from a blunt object Deep lacerations can result in heavy bleeding and damage to nerves, blood vessels, & other soft tissues.

18 Avulsion A cut in which a portion of the skin or other soft tissue is partially / completely torn away May hang like a flap Severed (finger) Can sometimes be reattached

19 Puncture Caused when a pointed object pieces the skin (nail, tack, bullet) Is small, but deep Usually does not cause heavy external bleeding, but may cause internal bleeding An object that remains embedded in the wound is called an impaled object

20 First Aid for Bleeding First put on protective equipment (gloves)
Wash a minor wound with mild soap & running water to remove dirt and debris Do not attempt to clean a severe injury (avulsion) Always wash hands before and after care

21 Caring for an Open Wound
Control bleeding (sterile dressing-direct pressure) Cover and press firmly Raise / elevate above heart (if no broken bone is suspected) Apply bandage snugly over dressing (if bleeding does not stop apply additional dressing) If bleeding cannot be controlled, put pressure to supplying artery Call for help

22 How to Apply a Pressure Bandage
Place a dressing over the wound Secure the roller bandage over the dressing Using overlapping turns, cover the dressing completely Secure the bandage in place; tie tightly over wound Should be tight enough to maintain pressure, but not so tight that it cuts off circulation

23 Pressure Point Bleeding Control
If elevating & applying pressure does not stop bleeding, pressure point bleeding control must be used. This procedure involves pressing the main artery against a bone It should be used only when absolutely necessary; seriously injured or possibly in shock.

24 Burns

25 Burns are caused by: Heat – most common Chemicals Electrical current
Radiation (from the sun)

26 Burns Are a specific type of soft tissue injury
You can describe burns by their cause or by their depth (the deeper the burn, the more severe it is) First degree are superficial Second & Third degree are deep A critical burn can be life-threatening

27 Types of Burns

28 Superficial (First Degree)
Involve the first layer of skin (outer layer) Skin is red & dry & usually painful May be swollen Most sunburns are superficial Cool the burn with cool running water (not ice) for 10 minutes Pat dry & cover with a sterile bandage.


30 Partial Thickness (Second Degree)
Involves top layers of skin Skin is red & blistered that may open & seep clear fluid Usually painful & often swells Cool the burn with cold water (not ice) and elevate. Wrap the area loosely with sterile, dry dressing. Do not pop blisters Seek medical attention



33 Full Thickness (Third Degree)
Destroys all layers of skin & any/all underlying structures (fat, muscle/bones,nerves) Burns look brown/black (charred) with tissue underneath appearing white Can be either extremely painful or relatively painless (nerve endings destroyed) Call for medical help immediately Cool with large amount of water and cover the area with dry sterile dressing



36 Special Kinds of Burns

37 Chemical Burns Chemicals (cleansers, lawn & garden sprays, paint removers, bleach) come in contact with skin or eyes May cause severe burns (longer contact) Flush with large amounts of cool running water Remove clothing


39 Electrical Burns Never go near a victim of an electrical burn until you are sure the power source is turned off Caused by: Power lines Lightning Defective electrical equipment Electrical outlets

40 Electrical Burns continued
Severity depends on how long the victim was in contact with power source & strength & type of current & path it takes Often deep Two wounds-enter/exit

41 Ch 28 Lesson 1- Review Questions
Define first aid Why is it necessary to use universal precautions when giving first aid to a person who is bleeding? What are the steps you should take in an emergency? Most burns are caused by? What are the types of burns?

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