Cell organelles perform different functions MMitochondrion- an organelle that produces energy from food VVacuole- a sac in the cell that stores water and other materials RRibosome- an organelle responsible for protein production EEndoplasmic Reticulum- which is like a maze of passages that carries materials throughout the cell NNucleus- the nucleus contains DNA and directs all the cell’s activities DDNA- controls the different functions of the cell, which is an instruction book GGolgi body- receives materials from the endoplasmic reticulum CCell wall- helps support and protect the cell CChloroplasts- site of photosynthesis (which is the plant cycle) CCell Membrane- controls what enters and exits the cell LLysosome- trash collector of the cell
Active transport is used when something is too large to pass through a cell membrane. It is also used when oxygen moves from a low concentration to a high concentration. Think of it like stairs, for example when you go from downstairs to up stairs.
Passive transport is when oxygen moves from a high concentration to a low concentration. There are three types of passive transport Osmosis – when water moves through the membrane of a cell Diffusion – the movement of molecules through the membrane of a cell Facilitated diffusion – when an ion moves through the membrane, using the channel of embedded proteins which means being surrounded by proteins
This entire process takes place in the cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the jelly like substance found in a cell Fermentation uses glucose (simple sugar) and it is broken down into smaller pieces to produce energy. Two types of fermentation – alcohol and lactic acid fermentation FERMENTATION oxygen is NOT required Not as much energy produced in cellular respiration
this is the chemical formula for cellular resperation:C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 - > 6CO 2+ 6 H 2 O (glucose) (oxygen) (carbon dioxide) (water) FFIRST STAGE > takes place in cytoplasm GGlucose is broken down into smaller pieces OOxygen is NOT involved SSmall amount of energy is released 22 ND AND 3 RD STAGE > requires oxygen SSmall parts are broken down into even smaller particles LLarge amount of energy is produced
Mitosis is the second stage in the cell cycle. The nucleus divides in this stage. Mitosis has four stages of its own. 1.prophase- the nuclear membrane breaks down and the chromosomes pair up 2. metaphase- the chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell 3. anaphase- chromosomes go to opposite sides of the cell and the cell elongates 4. Telophase- two distinct nucleus are formed
This means that there is only one parent cell. There are four types of asexual reproduction. Binary Fission – when the cell gets larger and divides into two equal parts. Budding – the outgrowth of a small part of the parent and develops into a new organism Spores – capable of sprouting new organisms (capsule- shaped, contain DNA) Vegetative reproductive – found in plants, small parts grow out of the parent plant that becomes a new plant. ex. Bulbs, offshoots, and stolens.
In Meiosis a cell divides two times, ending with four daughter, that are NOT duplicates. Each daughter cell is a gamete with only twenty-three chromosomes A gamete is a mature male or female reproductive cell Meiosis occurs in two stages 1. Meiosis I – the DNA duplicates and now has forty-six chromosomes 2. Meiosis II – the chromosomes align down the middle of the cell, the chromatids separate at their centromeres and migrate to opposite poles Chromatid – one of the two strands of a duplicated chromosome Centromeres – paired chromatids are held together by this in the middle by a structure