Function of Carbohydrates What do you think the main function of carbohydrate is? Energy supplies to the body! Fats contain more energy but require more oxygen to break down! Sugars and starches are the most efficient form. Starch is digested and stored as glycogen.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrate provides the main source of energy for the body. The majority of CHOs are found in plant foods in the form of sugar, starch or fibre.
CARBOHYDRATE – SUGAR Function: Major source of quick release energy for the body. The body requires energy to function and to be able to participate in physical activity. Food Sources: Cakes, biscuits, sugar, fruit, chocolate, lollies.
CARBOHYDRATE – STARCH Function: Major source of slow release energy for the body. The body requires energy to function and to be able to participate in physical activity. Food Sources: Bread Cereal Pasta Rice Potatoes Bananas
CARBOHYDRATE – FIBRE Function: Helps food move through the digestive system. Provides bulk to assist the removal of waste from the body – keeps waste removal from the body regular. Food Sources: Wholegrain and wholemeal breads and cereals, bran, fruits and vegetables (when the skin is left on).
Protein Function: Required for the growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues. Provides a secondary source of energy if insufficient carbohydrates are available. Food Sources: Meat, milk, eggs, fish, soy beans, nuts, legumes, beans, cheese.
FATS (LIPIDS) Function: Major source of energy. Contains the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Provides insulation and protects the body. Involved in hormone production. Food Sources: Cream, meat, whole milk, vegetable oils, butter, margarine, oily fish.
WATER Function: All chemical reactions that take place in the body require water. Transports nutrients to cells in the body and keeps the body hydrated so it can function. Food Sources: Most foods contain some water. Fruits and vegetables have high levels of water.
VITAMINS Vitamins B, C are water soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble
VITAMIN A Functions: Needed to maintain normal vision and for the growth of soft tissue like skin and hard tissue like bone. Food Sources: Butter, cheese, eggs, green leafy vegetables, red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
B GROUP VITAMINS VITAMIN B1-THIAMIN B2-RIBOFLAVIN B3-NIACIN B6-PYRIDOXINE Functions: Enables energy to be released from the energy nutrients – carbohydrate, fat and protein. Food Sources: Lean pork, wholegrain bread and cereals, nuts and vegemite.
VITAMIN B 12 Functions: Needed for red blood cell formation and maturation. Food Sources: Liver, meat, milk, eggs, cheese and fish.
VITAMIN B9 (FOLATE/FOLIC ACID) Function: Needed for growth, especially of the spinal cord in developing babies and red blood cell formation. Food Sources: Leafy green vegetables, broccoli, green beans, eggs, peanuts, avocado, oranges.
Recap of last lesson 1. What are macronutrients and micronutrients? Provide an example of each. 2. What macronutrient should most of our energy intake come from? 3. Why do we need fat in our diet? 4. What are the 4 categories of fat? 5. What’s another name for vitamin B9? 6. Name one difference between the Healthy Living Pyramid and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.
VITAMIN C Functions: Needed for soft tissue formation and healing. Eg: skin cells. Helps the body to absorb iron. Food Sources: Citrus fruits, leafy green vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes, kiwi fruit, capsicum.
VITAMIN D Function: Absorption of calcium and phosphorus Helps maintain a stable nervous system, normal heart action and blood clotting. Food sources: Butter, margarine, fish (salmon, tuna), liver, kidney.
CALCIUM Function: Required for the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. Assists with muscle contractions. Food Sources: Dairy products (milk, cheese, yoghurt), fish with soft bones (tuna, salmon, sardines), nuts (almonds), green leafy vegetables.
IRON Function: Needed for the formation of haemoglobin to carry oxygen in the blood. Needed to prevent iron anaemia – an illness that makes you feel tired. Food Sources: Meat, liver, egg yolk, wholegrain cereals, green leafy vegetables, dried apricots.
FLUORIDE Function: Strengthens tooth enamel (outer coating on teeth) to protect against dental caries. Food Sources: Seafood, tea, fluoridated water (tap water).
PHOSPHORUS Function: energy production Food Sources: foods rich in protein such as meat, milk, eggs, legumes and grains.
SODIUM Function: Helps to maintain water balance in the body. Required for muscle contractions. Food Sources: Table salt, fast foods, convenience foods, pickled foods.