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3.1 Nutrients – Functions and sources

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1 3.1 Nutrients – Functions and sources

2 Nutrition for youth health
One of the key behavioural determinants that affects the health and development of Australia’s youth is food intake Nutrition is the process of eating to nourish our bodies. It is also the scientific study of why we eat

3 Nutrients To understand how food affects health and development of youth, it is important to look at nutrients, how they work (function) and the foods they are found in (sources) Nutrients are the chemical components of food; they are required by living thing to maintain life There are many different types of nutrients

4 Types of nutrients The many different types of nutrients can be classified into two main forms: Macronutrients: Needed by the body in large quantities – proteins, carbohydrates, fats and water Micronutrients: Needed by the body in relatively small amounts – vitamins and minerals

5 Protein Main function: build, grow and repair cells
Made up of smaller units called amino acids Classified as either complete or incomplete depending on composition of amino acids Food sources include: Complete: meat, chicken, cheese, eggs, milk Incomplete: rice, legumes, nuts, vegetables

6 Carbohydrate Main function: provide energy or fuel
Classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides Food sources include: Monosaccharides: glucose and fructose found in honey and nuts Disaccharides: sucrose and lactose found in sugar and milk Polysaccharides: Starch found in rice and pasta and cellulose found in wholegrain breads and cereals

7 Fats Main function: Provide energy, provide insulation, supply fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids Classified as: saturated, trans, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated Food sources include Saturated: meat, butter, cream, coconut cream Trans: hydrogenated vegetable fats, manufactured margarines, cakes and biscuits (also found naturally in smaller quantities in meat and dairy) Monounsaturated: olives, olive oil, avocado, nuts Polyunsaturated: some margarines, vegetable oils, oily fish such as salmon, tuna and sardines

8 Water Most important nutrient of all
Essential for bodily functions, including: digestion, absorption, circulation, regulation of temperature, lubrication, transportation of nutrients, oxygen and wastes Sources: fresh water, fruit and vegetables

9 Minerals Minerals are micronutrients, two important minerals are calcium and iron

10 Calcium Main functions: Main sources:
forms hard structure of bones and teeth; regulates contraction and relaxation of muscles; assists in blood clotting; transmits nerve impulses Main sources: Milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables, tofu and soy bean products, fish with edible bones such as tinned tuna, nuts and seeds

11 Iron Main functions: Sources:
Essential component of haemoglobin – the pigment that gives blood its red colour Formation of red blood cells Sources: Red meat, chicken, seafood Wholegrain breads and cereals, legumes, dark green leafy vegetables

12 Vitamins Vitamins are also micronutrients, they include: Vitamin A
Vitamin D Vitamin C B-group vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B12

13 Vitamin A Functions Food sources Healthy vision Healthy skin
Resistance to infection Maintaining the mucous membranes that line the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts as well as the mouth nose and ears Normal growth of children, particularly teeth and bones Animal sources such as liver, oily fish, full-cream milk, egg yolk and cheese orange and green fruit and vegetables such as carrots, spinach, broccoli, pumpkin, mango and apricots

14 Vitamin B Functions Food sources
absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorous to assist the formation of bones and teeth cell growth and development healthy functioning of the nervous system and the immune systems Fish, especially fish with a high fat content, such as sardines and salmon meat, eggs and dairy products, including butter fortified foods, such as margarine

15 Vitamin C Functions Food sources
formation of collagen, the connective tissue in skin, ligaments and bones promoting the healing of wounds absorption of iron / formation of red blood cells preventing haemorrhaging and bleeding gums fighting infection by maintaining white blood cells, which act as bacteria fighters the production of thyroxin, a hormone involved in metabolism Fruit and vegetables such as: blackcurants, oranges, mangoes, pineapples, grapefruit, kiwi fruit, raspberries, capsicums, potatoes, broccoli and spinach

16 Thiamin (vitamin B1) Functions Food sources
Normal functioning of nerve cells Muscle tone fortified breakfast cereals yeast extracts (vegemite and marmite) liver kidney lean pork wholemeal bread sesame seeds

17 Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Functions Food sources Healthy skin and eyesight Involved in the production of red blood cells yeast extracts (vegemite and marmite) liver lean red meat chicken fish milk and milk products eggs wholegrain breads and cereals

18 Niacin (vitamin B3) Functions Food sources blood circulation
reducing cholesterol levels in the blood important for maintaining healthy digestive tract yeast extracts (vegemite and marmite) wholegrain breads and cereals fortified breakfast cereals liver fish eggs

19 Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Functions Food sources metabolism of protein production of red blood cells development of the nervous system liver lean red meat fish chicken wholegrain breads and cereals

20 Cyano-cobalamin (vitamin B12)
Functions Food sources formation of red blood cells formation of nerve cells and DNA genetic material metabolism of carbohydrates and fats liver kidney meat oysters fish seafood eggs milk

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