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P S Y C H O L O G Y T h i r d E d i t i o n by Drew Westen PowerPoint  Presentation C h a p t e r 1 P S Y C H O L O G Y The Study of Mental Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "P S Y C H O L O G Y T h i r d E d i t i o n by Drew Westen PowerPoint  Presentation C h a p t e r 1 P S Y C H O L O G Y The Study of Mental Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 P S Y C H O L O G Y T h i r d E d i t i o n by Drew Westen PowerPoint  Presentation C h a p t e r 1 P S Y C H O L O G Y The Study of Mental Processes & Behavior John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2 Lecture Outline n Boundaries of Psychology  Biology versus culture n Perspectives in Psychology  Psychodynamic  Behaviorist  Cognitive  Evolutionary © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3 Psychology n Psychology is defined as the scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior n Psychological processes reflect the influence of:  biological processes of the cells within the nervous system  the context of cultural beliefs and values © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4 Biopsychology n Biopsychology seeks to understand the mind through understanding the biological activity of the brain n Localization of function is the notion that discrete brain regions control discrete aspects of mental functioning  Lesions of neural pathways alter behavior in animal studies  Humans with focal brain damage show evidence of impairment of language Broca noted that damage to the left front hemisphere impairs the ability to speak language © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5 Localization of Function Damage to Broca’s area produces difficulty in speaking Damage to Wernicke’s area results in difficulty in language comprehension © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6 Cultural Influences and Psychology n Culture refers to the influence of membership in a larger group such as a tribe or nation  A society is not simply the summation of the individuals that make up the society  Rather, culture impacts psychological functioning of individuals within the society © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7 Philosophical Issues of Psychology n Free will versus determinism? n Nature versus nurture? n Rationalism versus empiricism? n Reason versus emotion? n Continuity versus discontinuity with other animals? n Individualism versus relationality? n Conscious versus unconscious? n Mental versus physical © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8 Early Psychological Science n Wilhelm Wundt: Proponent of structuralism  Established the first psychological laboratory  Wundt used the method of introspection to examine mental processes Observers were trained to provide verbal reports of their psychological processes Wundt sought to define the structure of consciousness n William James: Proponent of functionalism  Functionalism argued that consciousness is functional and serves a purpose © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

9 Perspectives in Psychology n Any psychological issue can be approached using a number of perspectives n We can be biased in our perspectives  Face  Vase © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10 Psychodynamic Perspective n The psychodynamic view posits that conscious and unconscious forces interact to control our thoughts and behaviors  Behavior is an interplay between thoughts, feelings, and wishes  Some mental events are unconscious  Mental processes can conflict, resulting in anxiety © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11 Psychodynamic Perspective n Metaphor for the Psychodynamic view:  Awareness is like an iceberg: the portion above water is the conscious, the larger bulk below the water is the unconscious n Methods: Seek to understand the meanings of the mental life of a client  Speech and dream analyses n Data: Case studies in which a therapist seeks understanding of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the client © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12 Behaviorist Perspective n Behaviorist view is that learning plays a role in acquiring and maintaining behaviors  Conditioning in which stimuli are associated Restaurant is paired with bad news that leads to anxiety Pairing of novel flavor with illness leads to taste aversion  Conditioning in which behaviors have consequences: Positive consequences are reinforcing Negative consequences are punishing © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

13 Behaviorist Perspective n Metaphor: Humans and other animals are mechanistic; we show reflexive responses that can be elicited by external stimuli n Methods: Experimental method  What are the relations between stimuli and behaviors? n Data: Quantitative empirical data analyses that can be replicated  Rats running in a maze for food © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

14 Behaviorist Perspective: Animal Experiments of Learning n In this study, a rat is placed at one end of a T-maze n The reward (food pellets) is placed in the left arm n Over trials, the rat runs rapidly to the left arm to obtain the food pellets © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15 Cognitive Perspective n The Cognitive view focuses on how people process, store, and retrieve information n Metaphor: The mind is like a computer  Identify inputs, outputs, and speculate on the mental programs that govern thought n Methods: Experimental Method  Recall of previous material  Reaction time n Data: Memory and decision-making © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16 Evolutionary Perspective n Evolutionary view: Human behaviors evolved because they helped our ancestors survive and reproduce  Animals and humans share common behaviors  Behaviors are biological determined Impulse to eat Sexual impulses Aggressive behavior in males Caring for ones offspring n Sociobiology:  Natural selection operates on psychological functions as well as physical functions © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 Evolutionary Perspective n Metaphor: “We are all runners in a race, competing for resources…” n Methods: Deductive, some experimental n Data: Often start with a known behavior in a species and attempt to explain it on the basis of evolutionary principles © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18 Contributions of the Psychological Perspectives n Psychodynamic  Focus on unconscious process and on conflict n Behavioral  Focus on learning  Behaviors can be modified by consequences n Cognitive  Focus on thought and memory n Evolutionary  Focus on why we feel, think, or behave © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

19 Certainty of Genetic Relatedness and Grandparent Investment © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

20 Major Subdisciplines of Psychology n Biopsychology n Developmental n Social n Clinical n Industrial/Organizational n Educational n Experimental n Health © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

21 Copyright Copyright 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.

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