2 Objectives WHAT is a population pyramid? HOW to read a population pyramid?Recognise SHAPES of population pyramids.IMPORTANCE of population pyramids.
3 WHAT IS A POPULATION PYRAMID? It is a diagram that gives information about the proportion of males and females in each age group.Policy Planningfuture housing estatesfuture schoolsfuture jobsComparison with other countriesdeveloped (US) vs developing (India)Normally Males are on the left side and Females are on the right sideAge categories are in 5 year intervals labeled up the centerAge groups are divided into:- proportion of young people (0 -14 )- proportion of working people (15 – 59)- proportion of elderly people (60+)The horizontal axis is measured in numbers appropriate for the country.Each pyramid tells a story about the past, present & future of a country & its people
4 What is a population pyramid? Young dependentsWorking populationElderly dependentsVertical Axis - Age GroupsHorizontal Axis – Percentage / number
5 HOW TO READ A POPULATION PYRAMID? Read the title e.g. country or city or racial groupComment on general shape of the pyramidNote the proportion of people in various age groupsNote the sex ratioInterpret the data
6 WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A POPULATION PYRAMID? SHAPE OF THE SIDESConcave (curved in) sides indicates a high death rate and convex (curved out) indicates a low death rate.
11 WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A POPULATION PYRAMID? Bumps in the sides or SymmetryStatistically speaking pyramids should be relatively symmetrical. Any ASYMMETRY indicates a difference in the male and female population. IRREGULARITIES in the sides indicate a demographic difference.
14 RAPID GROWTH Population pyramid that has a triangular / pyramid shape Wide base of this population indicates a HIGH birth rateNarrow top indicates HIGH death rateRapid Growth indicates Lower Standard of living.High birth rate due to poor access to lack of birth control, educationHigh death rate due to lack of medication, education, nutrition
15 SLOW GROWTHStable populations are characteristics of high standard of living due to:Low birth rate due to good family planning, access to birth control, financial planning, educationLow death rate due to good medical care, nutrition, education
16 NEGATIVE GROWTHNegative growth population have a narrower base that the reproductive age populationThis indicates decrease population trendLow birth rate reveals a more developed country
17 COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIESCountries with high level of development and great deal of technology and manufacturingGreat number of automobiles, doctors, computers, telephonesLow Death RatesHigh Standard of LivingVery good HealthcareLiteracy rate in the 90’sPer Capita incomes $30,000 and aboveLow Birth RatesUnited States, Australia, France, Germany, Japan, England
18 COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIESIncrease in income but standard of living has not improved (barely going through (INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION)Medium to Low death rateImproving standard of livingImproving Health CareLiteracy Rates in the 70% to 80%Per Capita Incomes rising $10,000-$30,000Birth Rate DecliningBrazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico
19 COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRYCountries in the process of becoming industrialized, not economically advancedConcentrated on agriculture, lack investment, small amount of doctors and hospitalsHigh Death RateLow Standard of LivingPoor Health CareLow Literacy Rates-Below 50%Low Per Capita Incomes $0-$5,000High Birth RateAfghanistan, Countries in Africa,