Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up (Not in your notebook)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Warm-Up (Not in your notebook) Fill out the quiz on parenting styles #1-15.
2 Social DevelopmentUp until about a year, infants do not mind strange people (maybe because everyone is strange to them).At about a year, infants develop stranger anxiety.Why do you think it starts at about a year?
3 AttachmentThe most important social construct an infant must develop is attachment (a bond with a caregiver)Some animals form attachment through imprintingSurrogate Mothers (Harry Harlow)
4 ImprintingInherited tendencies that newborn animals display in response to encounter with new stimuli in their environmentCritical Period: the optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper developmentBest time for human or animal to learn a skill or behavior
5 AttachmentCritical Periods: the optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development.Those who are deprived of touch have trouble forming attachment when they are older.
6 Avoids parents at all times AttachmentSecure Avoidant Resistant DisorganizedInconsistentbehaviorwhen it comesto caregiverAvoids parents at all timesNo need to write these in as notes, but fix anything on your parent handout!!!Upset when caregivercomes to them,not upset whenthey leaveHappyto see the caregiver,but alsowants own freedom
8 Authoritarian Families Kids need to listen to their parents and don’t have a say in decision makingAuthoritarian gov’tYou need to
9 PermissiveParents who are responsive to their children, but lack rules and discipline.
10 Democratic Families Kids are able to make decisions, but with limits on what they are allowed to do. Ex. Curfew- debate on time as you get older
11 Uninvolved Families Kids and parents distant from one another Could be because they work 2 or 3 jobs and don’t have time ORBecause they are preoccupied with themselves instead of you!!!Don’t ask you about school work or how your day went
12 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg)
13 Moral Development- child’s reasoning about morality, their attitudes toward moral lapses, and their behavior when faced with moral issues.
14 Lawrence KohlbergWas interested in HOW you made a decision, not the decision you ended up making.
15 Kohlberg built upon Piaget's ideas. Stage Theory: people pass through stages and substages of moral reasoning.
18 YouTube: Psych 101 - Developmental Psychology Kohlberg Moral Development
19 Kohlberg built upon Piaget's ideas. Stage Theory: people pass through stages and substages of moral reasoning.
20 Stage 1 Obedience & Punishment Earliest stage of moral development (fear)Common in young childrenThey see rules as fixed and absolute.Morality is externalAt this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
21 Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs.Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral development, but only if it serves one's own interests.
22 Kohlberg built upon Piaget's ideas. Stage Theory: people pass through stages and substages of moral reasoning.
23 Stage 3 Interpersonal Relationships Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation.At this stage children who are by now usually entering their teens, see morality as more than simple deals.Stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles (of the family and community). There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and behave in "good" ways.Good behavior means having good motives and interpersonal feelings such as love, empathy, trust, and concern for others.
24 Stage 4 Maintaining Social Order People begin to consider society as a whole when making judgment.Law and orderfocus on maintaining law and order and obeying lawsHeinz’s motivesConsequences of breaking the law
25 Stage 4 contd. Stage 1 and stage 4 are giving the same response Similarity is they both agree that breaking the law is wrongDifferences is for Stage 1 the child can’t explain why it is wrong, while Stage 4 the adults are able to deliberateEducationFollow rules and guide linesIt is compulsory for all school-age students to attend schoolRespect property of othersWear appropriate uniform, appropriate shoes to be worn
26 Kohlberg built upon Piaget's ideas. Stage Theory: people pass through stages and substages of moral reasoning.
27 Stage 5 Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people.Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.
28 Stage 6 Universal Principles Based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning.Based on respect for universal principle and the demands of individual conscienceTakes an idealized look at how people might coordinate their interestsAt this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.Define the principles by which agreement will be most just.If children are to reorganize their thinking, they must be more active.Principled conscience
29 Criticisms Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider?Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept as justice when making moral choices. Factors such as compassion, caring and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.Does Kohlberg's theory overemphasize Western philosophy?Individualistic cultures emphasize personal rights while collectivist cultures stress the importance of society and community. Eastern cultures may have different moral outlooks that Kohlberg's theory does not account for.