Presentation on theme: "Kohlberg's stages of moral development A Psychological Look at The Importance of Morality."— Presentation transcript:
Kohlberg's stages of moral development A Psychological Look at The Importance of Morality
Lawrence Kohlberg (October 25, 1927 – January 19, 1987) Was a Jewish American psychologist born in Bronxville, New York, who served as a professor at the University of Chicago, as well as Harvard University.Jewish Americanpsychologist Bronxville, New YorkUniversity of ChicagoHarvard University Having specialized in research on moral education and reasoning, he is best known for his theory of stages of moral development.theory of stages of moral development A close follower of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Kohlberg's work reflected and extended his predecessor's ideas, at the same time creating a new field within psychology: "moral development".Jean Piagettheory of cognitive development Kohlberg was one of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century.
The Stages In a 1958 dissertation, Kohlberg wrote what are now known as Kohlberg's stages of moral development.Kohlberg's stages of moral development These stages explain the development of moral reasoning.moral reasoning Created while studying psychology at the University of Chicago, the theory was inspired by the work of Jean Piaget and a fascination with children's reactions to moral dilemmasJean Piagetmoral dilemmas
Kohlberg’s theory holds that moral reasoning, which is the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental constructive stages - each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than the lasttheory ethical constructive
JUSTICE! He determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice and that its development continued throughout the life span.justicelife span
Moral Scenarios Kohlberg studied moral reasoning by presenting subjects with moral dilemmas.moral dilemmas He would then categorize and classify the reasoning used in the responses, into one of six distinct stages, grouped into three levels: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Each level contains two stages.
Level 1 (Pre-Conventional) –Child’s level. (However, some adults act out of this level.) –People at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. –solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner. –Person has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring 1. Punishment avoidance and Obedience orientation (How can I avoid punishment?) 2. Exchange of Favors: Self-interest orientation (What's in it for me?) (Paying for a benefit)
Level 2 (Conventional) –typical of adolescents and adults.adolescents –Those who reason in a conventional way judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. –At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. –Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid, however. 3. Good Boy/Good girl: Interpersonal accord and conformity (Social norms) (The good boy/good girl attitude) 4. Law & Order: Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Law and order morality)
Level 3 (Post-Conventional) –There is a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society, and that the individual’s own perspective may take precedence over society’s view; they may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles. –These people live by their own abstract principles about right and wrong—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice. Because of this level’s “nature of self before others”, the behavior of post- conventional individuals, especially those at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level. 5. Social contract orientation 6. Universal ethical principles (Principled conscience)