Presentation on theme: "MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg. _(1927–1987) _was a psychologist _Drew upon education, anthropology, and philosophy, to inform his work _ Kohlberg."— Presentation transcript:
_(1927–1987) _was a psychologist _Drew upon education, anthropology, and philosophy, to inform his work _ Kohlberg was raised in Bronxville, New York _ Smuggled European Jews into Palestine
_ Received his Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at University of Chicago _ Held faculty positions at University of Chicago and ultimately at Harvard Graduate School of Education until his death _ Influenced by the philosophies of Socrates, John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, and John Stuart Mill, as well as the works of Jean Piaget and John Dewey (Education.com)
He argues that experts had previously perceived good morals in children as being adopted from others, however... In studying children, “We find that they have many ways of making judgments which are not "internalized" from the outside, and which do not come in any direct and obvious way from parents, teachers or even peers.” Therefore, there must be an innate ability in each individual that enables moral decision-making
“Inspired by Jean Piaget's pioneering effort to apply a structural approach to development, I have gradually elaborated over the years of my study a typological scheme describing general structures and forms of moral thought which can be defined independently of the specific content of particular moral decisions or actions.” Piaget developed four stages of Cognitive Development. Similarly, Kohlberg developed his theory of Moral Development. He is not seeking to define what morality is, but rather, to define how people come to moral determinations themselves.
He came to his conclusions through research: he told children various stories centering around a moral dilemma and asked them questions. He observed the children's change in response over several years and recorded the changes He specifically studied a group of 75 boys from ages 10-15 for about 10 years He also studied children from different cultures and countries
WAS HEINZ RIGHT TO TAKE CARE OF HIS WIFE? SHOULD HEINZ BE ARRESTED? DOES THE CHEMIST HAVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE HEINZ? DOES THE CHEMIST HAVE A RIGHT TO CHARGE WHAT HE WANTS TO? IS IT EVER OKAY TO STEAL?
Punishment and Obedience Orientation Physical consequence of action determine its goodness or badness. Avoidance of punishment and deference to power are valued. Simple-minded Instrumental-relativist Orientation Right action consists of that which satisfies one’s own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Reciprocity is a matter of “you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours,” self-centered [Authority/Self-foocus] Child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong, but interprets these in terms of consequences of action (punishment, reward, exchanges of favors)
Interpersonal Concordance “Good boy, Good girl.” Good behavior is that which pleases or helps others and is approved by them May not necessarily be “good” Positive influence is imperative The "Law and Order" Orientation Orientation toward fixed rules and the maintenance of the social order. Right behavior consists of doing one's duty and showing respect for authority. Criminals do not acquire this level of moral reasoning. People who only acquire this level of reasoning may not question authority or be socially progressive [Conformity] Maintaining the expectations of the individual's family, group, or nation is perceived as valuable, regardless of consequences
The Social-Contract, Legalistic Orientation Right action defined in terms of rights and standards that have been agreed upon by the whole society This is the “official” morality of the U.S. Gov't & Constitution The Universal-Ethical- Principle Orientation “Right” is defined by conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles appealing to logic and universality ex: human rights [Autonomy and individual rights] Principled level of Moral Reasoning: Effort to define moral principles that have validity and application apart from the authority of groups
Kohlberg suggests three conditions that can help children to internalize moral principles: Exposure to the higher stage of reasoning Exposure to situations posing problems and contradictions for the child's current moral structure, leading to dissatisfaction with his/her current level An atmosphere of dialogue where conflicting moral views are compared openly
o Carol Giligan, a peer and collaborator with Kohlberg at Harvard, claimed that Kohlberg's theory of Moral Development defined people's thought process as too logical, abstract, and ultimately inaccurate. o She believed mature moral judgment was often determined through the eyes of relational responsibility rather than just individual rights as his theory suggests o She called this the“feminist voice," but ultimately determined that men may feel this same responsibility to others as they make decisions as well. o Others have also criticized that his theory doesn't explore actual behavior https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2W_9MozRoKE