Presentation on theme: "Media Research Media research includes a whole range of study about the development of media, their achievements and effects. It includes the methods."— Presentation transcript:
1 Media ResearchMedia research includes a whole range of study about the development of media, their achievements and effects. It includes the methods used in collecting and analyzing information with regard to newspapers, magazines, radio, TV, Cinema or other mass mediaIt also concerns with an expanded discussion of the scientific methods of research.
2 While studying any medium of communication we may ask series of questions: o What is the nature of the medium?o How does it work?o What technology does it involve?o How is it different or similar to any other media in any ways?o What function and/or services does it provide?o How much does it cost?o Who will have access to the new medium?o Is this medium effective?o Can its performance be improved?
3 Media research also accumulates information about the uses of the mass media and also the users of the mass media. In this connection we may asko How the people use a medium or the various media? o Whether it is used for information only and/or for entertainment and education also? o Which category of people use the different media more and why? o What gratification do the media provide? o What types of uses the media are put to?
4 Some media research of the past- In 50s and 60s-Research done by some advertisers to know the needs of their target customers as well as the effectiveness of the message. The main areas of these research were-Demography and size of audiencerole of advertising in achieving higher degree of acceptance and sellfrequencies of message to persuade potential customersselection of media that best suited to reach the target audienceIn 70s and 80s-Research done on the effects of media on public specially on children. Many research were conducted on the positive and negative effects of television.
5 After 90s-Due to tough competition between different media research started on audience sharing and advertising revenue. Different channels uses research to gain more viewers.Advertisers do research to know consumer's changing tastes and values, about shifts in demographic pattern.Now –Fragmentation of audience led to research conducted to know trend, behaviour patterns, segmentation studies.Today mass media research included the various psychological and sociological aspects of mass media. Specially the effects or aspects of tv programmes.
6 Role of Media Research- These days mainly three types of media audience are being studied in the world. These are-Broadcast audience (those using radio and TV)Print media audience (newspaper, magazine, periodicals and books)Internet audience (those using websites and exchanging messages with other netizens).
7 Electronic media research- There are two kinds of research in TV and Radio-RatingsNon-ratingsRatings- these type of research shows the popularity or non popularity of specific channel or channel’s programme. Also called Television Ratings Point (TRP) in India.The source for these research is Indian Market Research Bureau (IMRB), Mckinsey, AC Nielson and private channels.
8 Non-ratings research- This type of research provides information about what the audience likes and dislikes, analyses of different types of programming, demographic and lifestyle information about the audience. For example- these days private entertainment channel do research to know the taste of their viewers before planning any new show/serials.Also, news channels do repeat telecasts of their popular shows to get more TRPs.
9 Some procedures of electronic media research- Program testing: research on program ideas, rough-cuts, or final productions. (pilot episodes)Commercial testing: testing advertising messages that appear on radio, TV, or cable.Music Research: obtain listener opinions about music that a radio station might play.Performer Q: an indication of the popularity of various performers and entertainers. Ex-kapil sharma progFocus Groups: used for all types of preliminary and final research.Market studies: an investigation of the perceptions of the entire market, usually within a specific age range such as 25- to 54-year-olds.Format search studies: research in radio to find an available radio format in a given market.Program element importance: identifies elements on radio or television that are most important to a specific audience.Personality (talent) studies: analyses of on-air personalities.Account executive research: analyses of the local and national sales reps with advertising purchasers.Sales research: considered a value-added approach by a station where the station sponsors research for local clients. The results are usually used to prepare an advertising proposal for the client or clients.
10 Print Media Research-While there are many types of research conducted by the print media, these are the types of research that have gained most attention in the past several years:Readership: the most widely used of all print research procedures including research in areas such as reader profiles, item-selection studies, reader-nonreader studies, uses and gratifications studies, editor-reader comparisons, and psychographic and lifestyle segmentation studies.Circulation: research about who reads the newspaper or magazine, how can circulation be increased, and what the readers want to have included in their newspaper or magazine.Management: research concerning goal setting by management, employee job satisfaction, and effects of competition and ownership on newspaper content and quality.Typography/makeup: research on the effects of news design elements-specifically typeface and page makeup-on readership, reader preferences, and comprehension.Readability: research on all the elements and their interactions that affect the success of a piece of printed material.On-line media usage: research concerning the Internet and how it affects newspaper and magazine reading.
11 Sources of Print Media Research- The National Readership Survey (NRS)The data of the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC)Figures and data collected by the Registrar of Newspapers of India (RNI)Responses through of the readers of the newspapers to various queries raised by such newspapers. Also done thru feedback forms on the sites.
12 Advertising and Public Relations- Research in advertising and public relations includes a variety of topic, some of which include:Copy Testing: research on the effectiveness of advertising.Reach and frequency: how many people are exposed to advertising.Internet-related: research on how the Internet affects advertising and public relations.Campaign assessment: research on the success of an advertising campaign.Public relations: applied, basic, and introspective research to examine specific practical issues.Public relations audit: a comprehensive study of the public relations position of an organization.Social audit: a small-scale monitoring program to measure how well a company is living up to its public responsibilities.Evaluation research: studies to judge the effectiveness of program planning, implementation, and impact.
13 Digital Research-These days internet research conducted in all type of mediums. The Internet has quickly become a mass medium and it is changes every day. However, one thing is certain about the Internet, and that is it will provide a countless number of research possibilities for mass media researchers. Consider some of the possibilities:On-line research: respondents answer questions using Internet-based questionnaires.Website research: what makes a good website? How can more people be attracted to a website?Music testing: radio stations and music companies test short segments (hooks) of songs.Advertising testing: respondents provide reactions to audio, video, and print advertising.
14 social research v/s media research One way to see two related phenomena, namely, society and mediaBoth related to systematic collection and analysis of dataMostly they employ the same methods for data gathering and analysis.Both are interested in generating knowledgeMany studies conducted by media expert and social scientists are complementary to each otherThey help us to understand modern societiesBoth inform us about what is happening in the society and in the media.Also inform us about the effect of the news media on public opinion and politics.
15 Difference lies in the purpose social scientists are more concerned with practical problems rather than developing abstract, the primary goal of media research is communicate it.media research aims at keeping the public informed about the events, social scientists are interested in understanding and explaining human social behaviour.Social research focus on how social institutions including mass media institutions functions in actual terms.
16 Media research can help us understand the ways in which media can meet the needs of the audience. It can help to manage media organizations much better from a business point of view.It can make the media more sociallyThis will help them make better decisions not only to manage and regulate the media effectively, but also to insightfully deal with social and political issues.social sciences deal with issues more generally by using, social scientific approachesIt will not answer most of the immediate questions. However, it can provide important insights about the goings on in the society.
17 Media research both reflects and helps shape our perceptions of the appropriate roles of media professionals, media institutions, groups and public figures.It helps teach us what issues are important. It provides us with adequate information to form opinions.Social research also affects the mass media and media organizationsSocial research also help us understand how different government are influencing media.The other important areas covered are how the media influence our thinking, what role they play in everyday life and how media institutions vary from society to society.
18 Other areas in which both social scientists and media researchers are interested are relationships among gender and ethnic stereotypes.They are concerned with the portrayals of these groups in the mass media.Also they study this issue with a focus on the impacts of media across national and cultural boundariesBoth research are also concerned with the ever-growing relationship between media and society as a result of the introduction of new technologies. How the both disciplines will respond to this new challenge and in what areas they both will develop to achieve a higher understanding of the human self and society.