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Presentation on theme: "CLAUSES INDEPENDENT & SUBORDINATE CLAUSES"— Presentation transcript:


2 CLAUSES A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. An independent clause can stand alone independently as a sentence. A subordinate clause, sometimes referred to as a dependent clause, cannot stand alone because it does not express a complete thought. It needs help to be a complete sentence.

3 Examples of Clauses The band marched in the homecoming parade.
Independent Clause The band marched in the homecoming parade. subject: band verb: marched expresses a complete thought Subordinate (dependent) Clause While the cheerleaders rode on a float behind them subject: cheerleaders verb: rode does not express a complete thought needs help to become a sentence

4 Subordinate Clauses Subordinate or dependent clauses add extra information to sentences, and they often begin with words like who, which, that, because, when, if, while, until, before, and after. Examples: when the weather gets cold When the weather gets cold, I wear sweaters. before the movie begins I want to get some popcorn before the movie begins.

5 Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is always a subordinate (dependent) clause that describes a noun or pronoun. It contains both a verb and its subject. An adjective clause usually follows the word or words it modifies. It tells… which one what kind

6 Example of Adjective Clause
a red rose – an example of a descriptive adjective a rose with red petals – an example of an adjective phrase a rose that has red petals = adjective clause rose – noun the clause is describing has – verb

7 Commonly Used Relative Pronouns
HINT: Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns. The relative pronoun relates the adjective clause to the noun or pronoun it describes. Commonly Used Relative Pronouns that which who whom whose

8 Examples of Adjectives Clauses Beginning with Relative Pronouns
A snorkel is a hollow tube THAT lets a diver breathe underwater. Gary Paulsen is the writer WHO is the author of Hatchet and Brian’s Winter. The team’s mascot, WHICH is a bulldog, is called Uga.

9 Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is always a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Adverb clauses typically answer the questions… How? When? Where? Why? How much? How long?

10 Example of Adverb Clause
Bravely, Jason battled a dragon. “Bravely” is simply an adverb in the sentence above. With great bravery, Jason battled a dragon. “With great bravery” is an adverb phrase. Because Jason was brave, he battled a dragon. Jason – a noun subject was – a verb “Because Jason was brave” is an adverb clause.

11 Subordinating Conjunctions
HINT: Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Commonly Used Subordinating Conjunctions after as much as how than when although as soon as if though whenever as as though in order that where as if because since unless wherever as long as before so that until while

12 Examples of Adverb Clauses Introduced by Subordinating Conjunctions
AFTER the sun had risen, we left for the cabin. Late yesterday afternoon, BEFORE the deer left the field, we took photos of them. Please remain quiet WHILE the students exit the building.


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