5 Example # 3 Thrush is caused by fungi aka yeast infection (candida albicans)
6 Example # 4 Malaria is caused by protozoa P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, andP. malariaeAnopheles mosquito
7 Example # 5Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is caused by flatworms
8 Example # 6 Hookworm is caused by roundworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus.
9 Transmission of Pathogens ContactTouch, pathogen enters through skinCutsSkin cut or punctured by infected objectDropletsDroplets containing pathogens are sneezed out by infected person and breathed in by anotherFood or WaterEnter body through soft gut wallSexual IntercourseEnter body through soft mucus membranes of penis or vaginaInsectsSuck blood out of infected person and transmit pathogens to another
11 Tuberculosis Transmission Droplets A rare form of TB can pass from cow’s milk to humans
12 Tuberculosis Effects Lungs infected with TB bacteria Phagocytes move to lungs and engulf bacteriaBacteria survive and breed inside phagocyteTubercles form in lungs—small, rounded swellings containing infected phagocytesFirst infection is usually not severeRe-infection results in chronic TB which gradually destroys the lung tissueFever, loss of appetite, weight loss, persistent cough, coughing up bloodInfection can spread to lymph nodes, bones, and gutOver 3 million deaths/year world-wide caused by TB
18 Antibiotics Used to treat bacterial diseases Bacterial cells are very different than human cells so bacteria can be targeted and killed without harming human cellsViruses use human cells as hosts. If a virus was targeted with an “antibiotic,” human cells would be harmed.