Presentation on theme: "What Are Communicable Diseases?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Are Communicable Diseases? What is the best way to prevent spreading communicable diseases
2 Communicable disease: A disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment.
3 Causes of Communicable Diseases Pathogen-An organism that causes a diseaseCommon pathogens….viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias
4 Infection-condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cellsDisease develops
5 Viruses Pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coating The nuclear (chromosomal) and cytoplasmic (mitochondrial and chloroplast) material that plays a fundamental role in determining the nature of all cell substances, cell structures, and cell effects; the genes have properties of self-propagation and variation.
6 Alone they are inactive Need living cells to produce Includes all forms of lifeOnce inside a host cell virus makes more virusesViruses usually kill the host cell and take over other cells
7 Usually “run their course” Antibiotics do not work Common viruses Common cold, flu, AIDs, chicken pox, measles
8 BacteriaSingle-celled microorganisms- are everywhere!
9 When inside your body they multiply- cell division Some harmlessSome helpful- in digestive system they help digestive food and certain vitaminsWhen inside your body they multiply- cell divisionSome bacteria produce toxin- kills cells or interferes with their functionsTetanus- Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound
10 Bacteria and viruses can be killed by immune system Most bacterial infections are treated with antibioticsCommon:Strep throat, lyme disease, tuberculosis,
11 Fungi Plantlike organisms Molds and yeast Disease of skin, mucosal membrane, or lungsAthlete’s foot
12 ProtozoansSingle-celled organisms larger and more complex than bacteriaMost are harmlessSome can cause disease especially in people with weakened immune systems
13 Rickettsias Similar to bacteria Often from insect bites (fleas and lice)Rocky Mountain Fever most common
14 How They are Transmitted Direct ContactTouching, biting, kissing, and sexual contactSneezing or coughing- sprays infected saliva or mucusMother transmits infections to unborn child
15 Indirect Contact Contaminated object germs move onto an object- someone touches the object and picks up the germsExamples..Wash hands to prevent picking up infections
16 VectorsAn organism that carries and transmits pathogens to humans or other animalsExamples..Mosquitoes- malaria, Ticks- Lyme diseaseWater and FoodCarless handling, cooking, and storage of foodWater contaminate with pathogens
17 Airborne Transmission Pathogens travel in the air from a sneeze or coughLong distancesChicken pox, influenza, tuberculosis
18 Preventing the Spread of Disease Washing HandsMost effective way to prevent spread of diseaseWhen….Before preparing food and eatingAfter the bathroomBefore contactsAfter touching animalsWhen around an infected person
19 Handle food properlyCook properlyChill leftover to proper tempSeparate raw meat from other foods
20 Other MeasuresEat balanced dietAvoid use of drugsAvoid eating and drinking after peopleAvoid contact with infected peopleKeep vaccines up to dateManage stress