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Infectious Diseases.

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Presentation on theme: "Infectious Diseases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infectious Diseases

2 Infectious Diseases You can “catch” it
What does Infectious or Contagious mean? You can “catch” it Communicable, Transferrable, Spreadable Can spread from one person to another Can spread from one part of the body to another

3 What causes Infectious & Contagious Diseases?
Infectious Diseases What causes Infectious & Contagious Diseases? Bacteria Viruses Rickettsias Protozoa Fungi

4 Infectious Diseases How do you get an Infectious or Contagious Disease? Direct Contact When an uninfected person comes in contact with an infected person. Sexually transmitted diseases Pregnant woman to her unborn child Indirect Contact Breathing contaminated air in to the lungs Colds, influenza, and tuberculosis are spread this way

5 How Diseases are Spread
Infectious Diseases How Diseases are Spread People: Many infectious diseases are spread as a result of direct or indirect contact with an infected person Animals: Animals and insects spread many infectious diseases. The bit of an infected dog or other animal can spread rabies and can be fatal. Malaria and dengue fever are spread this way Contaminated Objects: Pathogens are spread when an uninfected person touches objects that an infected person has used. Eating utensils, glasses, toothbrushes, shared drug needles Environment: Food, water, soil, and air we breathe contain potentially harmful pathogens. Careless handling of food is the main source of food poisoning.

6 Infectious Diseases Your Immune System
How does your body prevent you from getting sick? Your Immune System

7 Physical Barriers against Infection
Skin is your body’s 1st line of defense against pathogens

8 Chemical Barriers against Infection
Enzymes in tears, saliva, and digestive juices destroy pathogens

9 Blood Cell Barriers against Infection
White Blood Cells group together to destroy pathogens

10 Inflammatory Barriers against Infection
Heat, redness, and swelling are the body’s “red alert,” indicating when pathogens break through other barriers

11 Common Infectious & Contagious Diseases
Infectious Diseases Common Infectious & Contagious Diseases Cold Flu (Influenza) Tuberculosis Measles Mono (Mononucleosis) Hepatitis Strep Throat

12 Infectious Diseases Diseases of the Nervous System Encephalitis
(Not so common Infectious & Contagious Diseases) Encephalitis Meningitis Polio (Poliomyelitis)

13 Common Cold Viral Infection Stuffy, runny nose Sneezing Sore Throat
Headache Contracted by breathing in the virus droplets or by touching the virus and rubbing the eyes or nose and transferring the virus by hand.

14 Flu (Influenza) Viral Infection Chills Fever Headache Muscle Ache
Flu is spread by virus-infected droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person.

15 Tuberculosis Bacterial Infection Coughing Chest pain
Shortness of breath Fever Sweating Loss of appetite Weight loss Spread by airborne droplets produced by coughing or sneezing

16 Strep Throat Spread by droplets coughed or breathed into the air.
Bacterial Infection Sore throat Fever General feeling of illness Enlarged lymph nodes in neck Spread by droplets coughed or breathed into the air.

17 Encephalitis Swelling of the brain Virus spread by mosquitoes Headache
Fever Hallucinations Confusion Paralysis Speech disturbances Memory loss Gradual loss of consciousness

18 Meningitis Swelling of the membranes (meninges) of the brain & spinal cord Viral & Bacterial types Fever Severe Headache Nausea & vomiting Sensitivity to light Stiff neck Infection is life threatening

19 Poliomyelitis More commonly known as polio
Virus of the central nervous system Has a vaccine to prevent Extensive paralysis of muscles used for breathing Can lead to death

20 Mono (Mononucleosis) Viral infection “kissing disease”
Common among teens Chills Fever Sore throat Fatigue Swollen lymph nodes Spreads through direct contact

21 Measles Highly contagious viral disease Fever Rash (over entire body)
Runny nose Sore eyes Cough Ear & Chest infections Has a vaccine to prevent

22 Hepatitis Swelling of the liver
Hepatitis A-from eating food or drinking drinks that have been contaminated Hepatitis B-spread by contaminated medical instruments and sexual contact with infected people Hepatitis C-spread through infected blood Viral Infection Jaundice Fever Nausea Loss of appetite Abdominal pain Aching muscle

23 Preventing Infectious Diseases
Immunity: The body’s defenses against disease Active Immunity: Your body remembers the pathogens it meets and attacks them when Passive Immunity: Temporary immunity. The immunity that babies get from their mothers and lasts a few months. Immunization: A way to help the body have immunity against pathogens

24 Vaccines Live virus vaccines: Made from weakened viruses. Measles, mumps, rubella, and oral polio vaccines all contain live virus. Killed virus vaccines: Contain viruses that have been killed. The vaccine causes the body to produce antibodies. Cholera, typhoid fever, rabies, and polio vaccines contain killed viruses. Toxoids: Treated toxins stimulate the production of antibodies and establish active immunity against diseases.

25 Don’t get Sick! Use Common Sense
Infectious Diseases Don’t get Sick! Use Common Sense Stay Healthy: good nutrition, exercise, adequate sleep, good healthcare Bathe Daily: keep skin, hair, and fingernails clean Don’t Share Food/Drinks: sharing straws, utensils, and drinking out of the same glass as others spreads germs Carefully Handle Food: prevents food poisoning Wash Your Hands: after using the bathroom, changing diapers, preparing, serving, or eating food. Stay Away from People: when YOU are sick, when THEY are sick

26 Journal Entry #8.1 Pick three-(3) infectious diseases to investigate, answer the following questions concerning each in your health journal: Write a paragraph about the disease. Explain what happens when a person contracts the disease; is the disease a result of direct or indirect contact Is the disease communicable, transferrable or spreadable? Explain your answer (it may be all three but you will need to explain how it is all three) What causes the disease? (Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Rickettsia, or Protozoa? What is the best way to prevent the disease? What would be the best method to prevent the disease? (You must answer all of these questions for each of the three-(3) diseases that you choose!)

27 References Merki, M.B. & Merki, D. (1999). Glencoe health a guide to wellness. New York, New York. Glencoe McGraw- Hill Publishing

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